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Devices rejected during manufacturing are sent to recyclers to salvage precious metals. Recyclers may certify destruction without scrapping devices and subsequently sell it back into the supply chain.

Source: iNEMI, "Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use" by Mark Schaffer.

Defective, damaged, or used electronic parts or systems from which electronic parts may be scavenged.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation

Scrape Test

Scratch Test

The irregular removal of a deposited layer from a base material by a shearing action from another surface such that the base material is exposed over an extended area. It can also apply to the removal of surface layers from a material. The material removed from the scraped area may build up at the edges of the scrape. ERAI Note: Scrape tests are commonly used to determine if a part has been blacktopped; however, industry consensus is that scrape tests are not accurate measures to determine a part’s authenticity and should not be used as a stand-alone inspection criteria.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).