|(1.) A counterfeit part type. (2.) Components that have been removed from a used system, repackaged and remarked and then sold in the market as new.
Note: “The most widely discussed counterfeit types at the present time are the recycled and remarked types. It is reported that in today’s supply chain, more than 80 % of counterfeit components are recycled and remarked . In the United States, only 25 % of electronic waste was properly recycled in 2009 . That percentage might be lower for many other countries. This huge resource of e-waste allows counterfeiters to pile up an extremely large supply of counterfeit components. The components become recycled when they are taken from a used system, repackaged and remarked, and then sold in the market as new. These recycled parts either may be non-functioning or prior usage may have done significant damage to the part’s life or performance.”
See: Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part"
|Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor|