|(1) A counterfeit part type. (2) Parts manufactured in accordance with the Intellectual Property holder’s specifications but not with the IP holder’s authorization that are subsequently distributed in the open market and not within the authorized supply chain. (3.) Fabrication outside of IP holder agreed upon contract.
See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part
Note: “Today’s high-density integrated circuits are mostly manufactured in state-of-art fabrication facilities. Building or maintaining such facilities for the present CMOS technology is reported to cost more than several billion dollars and this number is growing . Given this increasing cost and the complexity of foundries and their processes, the semiconductor business has largely shifted to a contract foundry business model (horizontal business model) over the past two decades. This is also true for the assembly where the dies are packaged, tested, and shipped to the market. Any untrusted foundry/assembly that has access to a designer’s IP, also has the ability to fabricate ICs outside of contract. They can easily sell excess ICs on the open market.”"
|Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor|