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Glossary Index

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R
Reclaimed

Reclamation

Large quantities of electronic equipment containing working devices are scrapped. Valuable components can be recovered for reuse; however, uncontrolled removal can damage and/or compromise the original electrical performance, reliability and operational life. These compromised parts can then be sold into the supply chain.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Reclamation

Reclaimed

Large quantities of electronic equipment containing working devices are scrapped. Valuable components can be recovered for reuse; however, uncontrolled removal can damage and/or compromise the original electrical performance, reliability and operational life. These compromised parts can then be sold into the supply chain.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Recycled Part


(1.) A counterfeit part type. (2.) Components that have been removed from a used system, repackaged and remarked and then sold in the market as new. Note: “The most widely discussed counterfeit types at the present time are the recycled and remarked types. It is reported that in today’s supply chain, more than 80 % of counterfeit components are recycled and remarked [38]. In the United States, only 25 % of electronic waste was properly recycled in 2009 [73]. That percentage might be lower for many other countries. This huge resource of e-waste allows counterfeiters to pile up an extremely large supply of counterfeit components. The components become recycled when they are taken from a used system, repackaged and remarked, and then sold in the market as new. These recycled parts either may be non-functioning or prior usage may have done significant damage to the part’s life or performance.” See: Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Refinished


Using post-manufacture plating methods (such as solder dipping) to alter the plating composition on a part’s leads.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A.
Refurbished


(1.) Devices that have been brightened, freshened, polished or renovated in an effort to restore them to a like new condition. (2.) Refurbished components may have had their leads realigned and have been re-tinned to give the lead a shiny new finish. (3.) Parts that have not been re-tinned should be classified as Used NOT Refurbished. (4.) Programmable, refurbished components should be erased and should not contain programs. (5.) Refurbished material should be sold in the manufacturer's recommended ESD compliant packaging. The packaging may not be factory original packaging, but may be third party packaging.
Registration


The Certification Body action of entering a record or causing a record to be entered, as a result of certification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A.
Relabeling


Relabeling is the process of altering the markings on a part to make it appear as a different part. A typical part marking includes part number, lot number, and the manufacturer’s logo. In some cases, part marking also includes the country of origin mark. The relabeling process includes erasing the original marking by methods such as blacktopping, or sandblasting and applying a new marking to create a counterfeit part. Sandblasting is the process of smoothing, shaping, or cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds. Blacktopping is a process in which a layer of material is applied to the top surface of a part to cover over old marking. Blacktopping may also be carried out after the part has been subjected to sandblasting. Relabeling may be carried out according to the needs of the customer to have higher grade parts (e.g., changing processor speed), different parts with the same pin count and packaging type, different vintage parts (e.g., changing date code), or different military specifications. Some cases of relabeling also include dual part marking, i.e., the presence of part marking at two different places on the part.
Source: “Screening for Counterfeit Electronic Parts” by Bhanu Sood and Diganta Das – Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering.
Remarked Part


Parts or devices in which the original part markings were removed or covered and then marked with a new part marking. See: Recycled Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part Note: “In remarking, the counterfeiters remove the old marking on the package (or even on the die) and mark them again with forged information. During the remarking process, the components’ packages are sanded or ground down to remove old markings (part number, date code, country of origin, etc.). Then, to cover the sanding or grinding marks, a new coating is created and applied to the component. Components can also be remarked to obtain a higher specification than they are rated for by the original component manufacturer (OCM), e.g., from commercial grade to industrial or defense grade.”
Sources: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B. and “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Repackaging


Repackaging is the process of altering the packaging of a part in order to disguise it as a different part with a different pin count and package type (e.g., dual-in-line (DIP) or plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC)). The process involves recovery of die (by removing the original packaging) and molding the die into the desired package type. Counterfeiters generally do not use proper handling procedures, tools, and materials for repackaging the die, which may lead to defects or degradation in the repackaged parts such as die contamination, moisture-induced interfacial delamination, and cracks in the passivation layer. There may also be workmanship issues with the repackaged parts such as missing bond wires, missing die, bond wire misalignment, or poor die paddle construction. The marking on repackaged parts also may not match with the die markings. There may also be marking irregularities such as spelling errors, discrepancies in part number, or an incorrect logo. Counterfeiters may also use inferior quality materials to package the die, such as cheap filler materials and flame retardants.
Source: “Screening for Counterfeit Electronic Parts” by Bhanu Sood and Diganta Das – Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering.
Request for Quotation

Request for Quote
RFQ

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Request for Quote

Request for Quotation
RFQ

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Return Goods Authorization

Return Merchandise Authorization
RGA
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Return Merchandise Authorization

Return Goods Authorization
RGA
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Reverse Engineering


(1) A process used by counterfeiters to make a cloned part. (2) The process of discovering the technological principles of a device through analysis of its structure, function, and operation. (3) The disassembling of an electronic component to analyze its inner workings in detail for the creation of a new device that will either function the same. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part Note: Part cloning may involve reverse engineering. “Cloning is commonly used by a wide variety of adversaries/counterfeiters (from small entity to large corporation) to copy a design in order to reduce the large development cost of a component. A cloned component is an unauthorized production without a legal IP. Cloning can be done in two ways – by reverse engineering, and by obtaining IPs illegally. In reverse engineering, counterfeiters copy designs and then manufacture (fabricate) components which are the exact copy of their original counterpart. Sometimes cloning can be done by copying the – contents of a memory used in a tag for electronic chip ID, bitstream targeted to programmable gate arrays, etc.” "
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
RFQ

Request for Quotation
Request for Quote

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
RGA

Return Goods Authorization
Return Merchandise Authorization
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Risk-Based Approach


An analytical strategy that focuses attention on areas or applications where failures will produce severe consequences and trigger impacts to the overall mission objectives and/or human safety.
Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
RMA

Return Goods Authorization
Return Merchandise Authorization
RGA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.