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Glossary

 



Glossary Index

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C
C of C

Certificate of Conformance
CoC

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
C of C/T

Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability
CoCT

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
CAGE Code


A Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code is a five (5) position unique identifier for entities doing or wishing to do business with the U.S. Federal Government. The format and character position of the code vary based on country.
Source: DLA website
CALCE

Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) is recognized as a founder and driving force behind the development and implementation of physics-of-failure (PoF) approaches to reliability, as well as a world leader in accelerated testing, electronic parts selection and management, and supply-chain management. CALCE is at the forefront of international standards development for critical electronic systems having chaired the development of several reliability and part selection standards. CALCE is staffed by over 100 faculty, staff and students, and in 1999 became the first academic research facility in the world to be ISO 9001 certified. Collectively, CALCE researchers have authored over 35 internationally acclaimed textbooks and well over 1000 research publications relevant to electronics reliability. Over the last 15 years, CALCE has invested over $75 million in developing methodologies, models, and tools that address the design, manufacture, analysis, and management of electronic systems.
Source: CALCE website
Carrier


The medium within which the parts are packed, i.e., tubes, reels, trays, tape, bulk bag.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
CCAP-101


This document describes a Certification Program for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit components supplied by Independent Distributors (ID). Implementation of this Program is mandatory for IDs to become Certified to CCAP-101 for Counterfeit Components Avoidance. The ID Procedures are designed for components purchased from the open market, not from OCM or Franchised Distributor (FD) and shall address both commercial electronic components and military electronic components and applies only to new components, which have never been installed on circuit boards or in equipment. The Certification Program provides for a choice of Level A (which includes electrical testing) or Level B (which excludes electrical testing except for specified passives). The customer must specify the level A or B to be supplied.
Date Published: 2013-11-13
Source: Component Technology Institute website
CEM

CM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE

The Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) is recognized as a founder and driving force behind the development and implementation of physics-of-failure (PoF) approaches to reliability, as well as a world leader in accelerated testing, electronic parts selection and management, and supply-chain management. CALCE is at the forefront of international standards development for critical electronic systems having chaired the development of several reliability and part selection standards. CALCE is staffed by over 100 faculty, staff and students, and in 1999 became the first academic research facility in the world to be ISO 9001 certified. Collectively, CALCE researchers have authored over 35 internationally acclaimed textbooks and well over 1000 research publications relevant to electronics reliability. Over the last 15 years, CALCE has invested over $75 million in developing methodologies, models, and tools that address the design, manufacture, analysis, and management of electronic systems.
Source: CALCE website
Certificate of Conformance

C of C
CoC

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability

C of C/T
CoCT

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Certification


The Certification Body action of testifying, guaranteeing or endorsing organizations that conform with specific management system standards.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A
Chipout


Pieces of the component body are chipped/broken.
Circuit Board Assembler


A company that manufacturers bare and/or assembled circuit boards.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
Clipped Lead


A lead that has been cut and is not in the original condition per the manufacturer’s specifications. A clipped lead could be indicative of tampering, previous use or damage.
Cloned


A reproduction of a part produced by an unauthorized manufacturer without approval or design authority that replicates the authorized manufacturer’s part.

NOTE: Cloning eliminates the large development cost of a part. Cloning can be done in two ways: by reverse engineering or by obtaining design information and/or technical data inappropriately (such as by unauthorized knowledge transfer from a person with access to the part design).
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6171 Test Methods Standard; General Requirements, Suspect/Counterfeit, Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical Parts
Cloned Component

Cloned Part
Cloning

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Cloned Part

Cloned Component
Cloning

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Cloned Part


(1) A counterfeit part type. (2) The process of producing a copy. (3) An unauthorized copy of a part produced without the Intellectual Property Rights Holder’s knowledge or consent. (4) Parts that are illegally produced using reverse engineering. (4) Parts that are illegally produced after illegally obtaining the IP holder’s design specifications. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Tampered Part Note: “Cloning is commonly used by a wide variety of adversaries/counterfeiters (from small entity to large corporation) to copy a design in order to reduce the large development cost of a component. A cloned component is an unauthorized production without a legal IP. Cloning can be done in two ways – by reverse engineering, and by obtaining IPs illegally. In reverse engineering, counterfeiters copy designs and then manufacture (fabricate) components which are the exact copy of their original counterpart. Sometimes cloning can be done by copying the – contents of a memory used in a tag for electronic chip ID, bitstream targeted to programmable gate arrays, etc.” "
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Cloning

Cloned Component
Cloned Part

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
CM

CEM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


CoC

C of C
Certificate of Conformance

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
CoCT

C of C/T
Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Commercial and Industrial Parts


Parts produced for a commercial and/or industrial use and normally manufactured to conform to a manufacturing organization’s specification or data sheet.
Source: JEDEC Standard No. 243, Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Non-Proliferation for Manufacturers
Commercial Off-The Shelf

COTS

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) is defined as "commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency.
Source: Defense Acquisition Guidebook [DAG].
Component Manufacturer

OCM
Original Component Manufacturer

An entity that designs and/or engineers a part and is pursuing or has obtained the intellectual property rights to that part. 1. The part and/or its packaging is typically identified with the OCM’s trademark. 2. OCMs may contract out the manufacturing and/or distribution of their product. 3. Different OCMs may supply product for the same application or to a common specification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Component Packaging

Packaging (Component)

Component packaging refers to the manner in which electronic parts are packaged in preparation for use by electronic assemblers. The determination of packaging types is determined by product sensitivities such as moisture, physical (lead pitch, co-planarity), electrostatic discharge (ESD), as well as the method (manually, or by use of automated equipment) to be used to place parts on the printed circuit board. There are four types of packaging: bulk, trays, tubes, and tape and reel.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Contingency Planning


A reserve of funds, time, and/or material that is allocated to maintain schedule and budget. A reserve for scope changes, unforeseen site conditions, change in material prices, or unanticipated events.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Continuity Test


In electrical applications, continuity testing is performed to verify if an electrical circuit is capable of conducting current.
Contract Electronics Manufacturer

CEM
CM
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Contract Manufacturer

CEM
CM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


COO

Country of Origin

The country where the device was manufactured. Some devices may have multiple COOs, with the die being manufactured in one country and the packaging assembly completed in a second.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Coplanarity


Applied to surface-mount semiconductor devices and is the plane formed by the three terminal apexes that exhibit the greatest perpendicular distance from the package substrate, provided that the triangle formed by those three apexes encompasses the projection of the center of gravity (COG) of the component.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and JEDEX, JESD22-B108B: Coplanarity Test for Surface-Mount Semiconductor Devices
Corrosion


Corrosion can be defined as the degradation of a material due to a reaction with its environment.
Source: NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory website.
COTS

Commercial Off-The Shelf

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) is defined as "commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency.
Source: Defense Acquisition Guidebook [DAG].
COUNTERFEIT


1. A fraudulent part that has been confirmed to be a copy, imitation, or substitute that has been represented, identified, or marked as genuine, and/or altered by a source without legal right with intent to mislead, deceive, or defraud.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors.


2. Counterfeit Electronic Part means an unlawful or unauthorized reproduction, substitution, or alteration that has been knowingly mismarked, misidentified, or otherwise misrepresented to be an authentic, unmodified electronic part from the original manufacturer, or a source with the express written authority of the original manufacturer or current design activity, including an authorized aftermarket manufacturer. Unlawful or unauthorized substitution includes used electronic parts represented as new, or the false indication of grade, serial number, lot number, date code, or performance characteristics.

Source: DFARS 252.246-7007


3. (1) An unauthorized copy, imitation, substitute, or modified part, which is knowingly misrepresented as a specified genuine part of the manufacturer. (2) Or a previously used EEE Part which has been modified and is knowingly misrepresented as new without disclosure to the customer that it has been previously used. NOTE: Examples of a counterfeit part can include, but are not limited to; the false identification of grade, serial number, date code or performance characteristics.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553Rev. B Counterfeit Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition


4. (1) an unauthorized a) copy, b) imitation, c) substitute, or d) modified electronic part, which is knowingly, recklessly or negligently misrepresented as a specified genuine electronic part of an authorized manufacturer; or (2) a previously used electronic part which has been modified and is knowingly, recklessly, or negligently misrepresented as new without disclosure to the customer that it has been previously used.

Source: SAE AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition per the letter submitted to NASA and DoD, June/July 2013


5. A counterfeit is an electronic part that is not genuine because it: is an unauthorized copy; does not conform to original OCM design, model, and/or performance standards; is not produced by the OCM or is produced by unauthorized contractors; is an off-specification, defective, or used OCM product sold as "new" or working; or has incorrect or false markings and/or documentation.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security Office of Technology Evaluation survey


6. An item that is an unauthorized copy or substitute that has been identified, marked or altered by a source other than the item’s legally authorized source, and has been misrepresented to be an authorized item of the legally authorized source.

Source: Department of Defense Instruction, Number 4140.67 DoD Counterfeit Prevention Policy (April 26, 2013)


7. Counterfeit electronic part means an unlawful or unauthorized reproduction, substitution, or alteration that has been knowingly mismarked, misidentified, or otherwise misrepresented to be an authentic, unmodified electronic part from the original manufacturer, or a source with the express written authority of the original manufacturer or current design activity, including an authorized aftermarket manufacturer. Unlawful or unauthorized substitution includes electronic parts represented as new, or the false identification of grade, serial number, lot number, date code, or performance characteristics.

Source: Final Rule Department of Defense Defense Acquisition Acquisition Regulations System: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts (DFARS Case 2012-D055) published in the Federal Register on May 6, 2014


8. A part made or altered to imitate or resemble an approved part without authority or right, and with the intent to mislead or defraud by passing as original or genuine.

Source: Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 21-29C, Detecting and Reporting Suspected Unapproved Parts.


9. For the purposes of this agreement: (a) “counterfeit trademark goods” shall mean any goods including packaging, bearing without authorization a trademark which is identical to the trademark validly registered in respect of such goods, or which cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from such a trademark and which thereby infringes the rights of the owner of the trademark in question under the law of the country of importation;

Source: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Part III – Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Article 51 Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities


10. Materiel whose origin, age, composition, configuration, certification status or other characteristic (including whether or not the materiel has been used previously) has been falsely represented by:
  • misleading marking of the materiel, labelling or packaging;
  • misleading documentation; or
  • any other means, including failing to disclose information;
except where it has been demonstrated that the misrepresentation was not the result of dishonesty by a supplier or sub-supplier within the supply chain.

Source: UK MOD DEF-STAN-05-135
Country of Origin

COO

The country where the device was manufactured. Some devices may have multiple COOs, with the die being manufactured in one country and the packaging assembly completed in a second.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Critical Safety Parts


Parts whose failure would cause loss of life, permanent disability or major injury, loss of a system, or significant equipment damage.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
Customs Seizure


The detention of a shipment by a customs entity. Reasons for seizure may include violation of intellectual property rights (e.g. counterfeit goods), restricted (e.g. subject to trade embargo), improper value declaration (undervalued shipments), etc.