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Defective Part

(1) A counterfeit part type. (2.) A part not manufactured in accordance with the Intellectual Property Rights Holder’s specifications that is rejected during final manufacturing testing and that is subsequently identified as defective and marked for destruction but that is sold and/or distributed without the IP holders knowledge or consent. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part Note: “The other variation of an untrusted foundry/assembly sourcing counterfeit components is out of specification or rejected components. They may either knowingly sell these components, or the components may be stolen and sold on open markets. During manufacturing tests, a component is considered defective if it produces an incorrect response to even one test vector. Sometimes, the probability of activating a component’s defective node is extremely small. If these components make their way into the supply chain, detection will be extremely difficult as they produce correct responses in most of the test cases. These components can pose a serious threat to the quality and reliability of a system.”"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor