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Glossary Index

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3
3PL Providers


Firms that provide outsourced or "third party" logistics services to companies for supply chain management functions. 3PL Providers typically specialize in integrated operation warehousing, and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to Customer's needs based on market conditions and the demands and delivery service requirements for their products and materials.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
A
Acceptable


The condition whereby authentic product meets and thereby satisfies all legal and contractual requirements, including the manufacturer's specification.
Accreditation


The means by which an authoritative body gives formal recognition that an audit organization is competent to carry out specific tasks and provides assurance to end users in the public and private sectors that the audit organization continues to operate according to internationally-accepted criteria.
Source: SAE, AS5553 Rev. A Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition
Acid Etching


The use of acid to remove original component manufacturer markings resulting in a smoother or washed away surface appearance.
Acoustic Microscopy

AM

Process that creates an image using ultrasound to view a specimen’s surface or subsurface features, including defects and damage. See J-STD-035 for more information about Acoustic Microscopy.
Source: IPC/JEDEC, J-STD-020D.1: Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
Active Discrete Components

Discrete Components
Passive Discrete Components

Discrete components are simply defined as single element (circuit) electronic devices. Discrete devices are subgrouped by passive (primarily to regulate voltage and current flows, although they cannot achieve power gain) and active (switching devices, with the exception of LED). Most commonly and for relevance in inspection methodologies, passive discrete components do not contain a silicon wafer while active components do. Active Discrete components increase the power of a signal and must be supplied with the signal and a source of power. The signal is fed into one connection of the active device and the amplified version taken from another connection. In a transistor, the signal can be applied to the base connection and the amplified version taken from the collector. The source of power is usually a direct current voltage from a battery or power supply. Examples are bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, light emitting diodes (LED), metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFED), etc. Passive Discrete components do not increase the power of a signal. They often cause power to be lost. Some can increase the voltage at the expense of current, so overall there is a loss of power. Examples are resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes (the latter is a special case).
Sources: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and White Horse Laboratories, Ltd
Aerospace Industries Association

AIA

The Aerospace Industries Association represents the nation's leading manufacturers and suppliers of civil, military, and business aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aircraft systems, space systems, aircraft engines, missiles, materiel and related components, equipment, services and information technology. The association concentrates on issues covering civil aviation, space, national security, international and procurement & finance. In addition the association has offices for Communications, Legislative Affairs, and Membership Services, the Supplier Management Council, the Team America Rocketry Challenge and the Aerospace Research Center.
Source: AIA website
Aftermarket Manufacturer


A manufacturer that meets one or more of the following criteria:
  • The manufacturer is authorized by the OCM to produce and sell replacements parts, usually due to an OCM decision to discontinue production of a part. Parts supplied are produced from materials that have been
    • Transferred from the OCM to the Aftermarket Manufacturer, or
    • Produced by the Aftermarket Manufacturer using OCM tooling and intellectual property (IP).
  • The manufacturer produces parts using semiconductor dice or wafers, manufactured by and traceable to an OCM, that have been properly stored until use and are subsequently assembled, tested, and qualified using processes that meet technical specifications without violating the OCM's intellectual property and intellectual property rights.
  • The manufacturer produces parts through emulation, reverse-engineering, or redesign, that match the OCM's specifications and satisfy customer needs without violating the OCM's intellectual property and intellectual property rights.
In any case, the Aftermarket Manufacturer must label or otherwise identify its parts to ensure that the "as shipped" aftermarket manufactured part should not be mistaken for the part made by the OCM.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors


A company engaged in the manufacture of electronic products initially but no longer produced by an original component manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


AIA

Aerospace Industries Association

The Aerospace Industries Association represents the nation's leading manufacturers and suppliers of civil, military, and business aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aircraft systems, space systems, aircraft engines, missiles, materiel and related components, equipment, services and information technology. The association concentrates on issues covering civil aviation, space, national security, international and procurement & finance. In addition the association has offices for Communications, Legislative Affairs, and Membership Services, the Supplier Management Council, the Team America Rocketry Challenge and the Aerospace Research Center.
Source: AIA website
AIR6273


This document is to be used and cited as a standard reference by other SAE G-19 Committee documents that address the mitigation of Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts.
Date Published: Work in Progress
Source: SAE website
Allocated

Allocation

Shortage of availability of a component due to long lead times from the manufacturer.
Allocation

Allocated

Shortage of availability of a component due to long lead times from the manufacturer.
AM

Acoustic Microscopy

Process that creates an image using ultrasound to view a specimen’s surface or subsurface features, including defects and damage. See J-STD-035 for more information about Acoustic Microscopy.
Source: IPC/JEDEC, J-STD-020D.1: Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
Approved Supplier


Suppliers that are assessed and determined to provide acceptable fraudulent/counterfeit parts risk mitigation processes.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
ARP


SAE International's designation prefix for Aerospace Recommended Practice (e.g. SAE ARP6178).
ARP6178


This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice is applicable for all organizations that procure electronic components from sources other than the original component manufacturer. It is especially applicable for assessing distributors that sell electronic components without contractual authorization from the original component manufacturer.
Date Published: 2011-12-19
Issuing Committee: G-19dr Distributor Risk Characterization
Source: SAE website
ARP6178


This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice is applicable for all organizations that procure electronic components from sources other than the original component manufacturer. It is especially applicable for assessing distributors that sell electronic components without contractual authorization from the original component manufacturer.
Date Published: 2011-12-19
Issuing Committee: G-19dr Distributor Risk Characterization
Source: SAE website
AS


SAE International's designation prefix for Aerospace Standard(s) (e.g. SAE AS5553A, SAE AS6081, SAE AS9120).
AS5553A


This standard, developed by SAE, is for use by organizations that procure and/or integrate electronic parts and/or assemblies containing such items. The requirements of this standard are generic and intended to be applied/flowed down through the supply chain to all organizations that procure electronic parts and/or assemblies, regardless of type, size and product provided. The mitigation of fraudulent/counterfeit EEE parts in this standard is risk-based and will vary depending on the desired performance or reliability of the equipment/hardware.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2013-01-21
Issuing Committee: G-19ci Continuous Improvement
Source: SAE website
AS6081


This SAE Aerospace Standard standardizes practices to: a. identify reliable sources to procure parts, b. assess and mitigate risk of distributing fraudulent/counterfeit parts, c. control suspect or confirmed fraudulent/counterfeit parts, d. and report suspect and confirmed fraudulent/counterfeit parts to other potential users and Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Date Published: 2012-11-07
Issuing Committee: G-19d Distributor
Source: SAE website
AS6171


This document standardizes practices to detect suspect counterfeit electronic parts, to maximize the use of authentic parts, and to ensure consistency across the supply-chain for test techniques and requirements.
Date Published: Work in Progress
Source: SAE website
AS6174A


This SAE Standard standardizes practices to: a. maximize availability of authentic materiel (made from the proper materials using the proper processes with required testing,) b. procure materiel from reliable sources, c. assure authenticity and conformance of procured materiel, d. control materiel identified as counterfeit, and e. report counterfeit materiel to other potential users and government investigative authorities.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2014-09-27
Issuing Committee: G-21 Counterfeit Materiel Committee
Source: SAE website
AS6301


The criteria in this document is to be used by accredited Certification Bodies (CBs) to determine compliance and grant certification to AS6081, Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition - Distributors.
Date Published: Work in Progress
Source: SAE website
AS6462


This set of criteria is to be utilized by accredited Certification Bodies (CBs) to establish compliance, and grant certification to AS5553, Aerospace Standard; Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2014-08-26
Issuing Committee: G-19c Standards Compliance Verification
Source: SAE website
AS6496


This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) identifies the requirements for mitigating counterfeit products in the Authorized Distribution supply chain by the Authorized Distributor. If not performing Authorized Distribution, such as an Authorized Reseller, Broker, or Independent Distributor, refer to another applicable SAE standard.
Date Published: 2014-08-20
Issuing Committee: G-19ad Authorized Distributor Committee
Source: SAE website
AS9003A


This standard includes selected quality system requirements from ISO 9001:2008[1] and AS9100:2009 applicable to noncomplex products and associated manufacturing processes. ISO 9001 text incorporated into this standard appears in standard font; while aviation, space, and defense industry additional requirements, definitions, and notes are presented in bold, italic text. The requirements of this standard are intended to be applied in whole, without any exclusions. Compliance with all corresponding AS9100 requirements is considered to meet/exceed compliance with the requirements of this standard. The requirements specified in this standard are complementary (not alternative) to contractual and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. Should there be a conflict between the requirements of this standard and applicable statutory or regulatory requirements, the latter shall take precedence. The process approach described in ISO 9001 and AS9100 applies to this standard.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2012-07-31
Issuing Committee: G-14 Americas Aerospace Quality Standards Committee (Aaqsc)
Source: SAE website
AS9100


This International Standard specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization a) needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, and b) aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for continual improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. NOTE 1 In this International Standard, the term 'product' only applies to a) product intended for, or required by, a customer, b) any intended output resulting from the product realization processes. NOTE 2 Statutory and regulatory requirements can be expressed as legal requirements.
Revision Number: C
Date Published: 2009-01-15
Issuing Committee: G-14 Americas Aerospace Quality Standards Committee (Aaqsc)
Source: SAE website
AS9120


This standard includes ISO 9001:2008 quality management system requirements and specifies additional aviation, space and defense industry requirements, definitions and notes as shown in bold, italic text. It is emphasized that the requirements specified in this standard are complementary (not alternative) to contractual and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. Should there be a conflict between the requirements of this standard and applicable statutory or regulatory requirements, the latter shall take precedence.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2009-06-29
Issuing Committee: G-14 Americas Aerospace Quality Standards Committee (Aaqsc)
Source: SAE website
Assembly Cross Checking


The verification of a bill of assembly against a list of known nonconforming parts such as ERAI’s High Risk Parts Database.
Authenticate


The process of using inspections, tests, or other methods to determine whether a part or materiel has been knowingly misrepresented by a contractor or supplier and is considered a counterfeit part or materiel. Parts or materiel which have passed the authenticity process are considered to be authentic, valid versions of items.
Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
Authorized Distribution


Transactions conducted by an OCM-Authorized Distributor distributing product within the terms of an OCM contractual agreement. Contractual agreement terms include, but are not limited to, distribution region, distribution products or lines, and warranty flow down from the OCM. Under this distribution, the distributor would be known as an Authorized Distributor. Franchised Distribution is considered synonymous with Authorized Distribution.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Authorized Distributor


Distributor when they perform Authorized Distribution.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors


A company that is authorized by an Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to market, store, and ship OCM/OEM products.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Authorized Reseller


A company that has written authorization signed by a duly authorized representative of the manufacturing organization to sell the manufacturing organization’s parts. NOTE 1 Some authorized resellers purchase directly from the manufacturing organization while others obtain parts directly from an entity authorized by the manufacturing organization. NOTE 2 The authorized reseller is not an authorized distributor, does not stock parts, and may possibly not offer a full manufacturer’s warranty.
Source: JEDEC Standard No. 243, Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Non-Proliferation for Manufacturers
Authorized Supplier


Aftermarket Manufacturer, as defined above, and OCM-authorized sources of supply for a part (i.e. Franchised Distributors, Authorized Distributors). NOTE: Some Authorized Suppliers will provide other services which are not authorized by an OCM (e.g. , independent distribution).
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
B
Barcode


An internationally recognized symbology where the method of printed bars and spaces are used to represent numbers, letters, or punctuation marks that are read rapidly by a laser scanner or some other interface to an electronic database for identification and other inventory control purposes.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Barcode Scanner


Used to read and convert the information from barcodes (on labels) to human-readable form. These instruments are very reasonably priced and will produce human-readable results within popular application, such as Microsoft® Word, and are useful for detecting some counterfeit labels.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Batch Code

Batch Number

Code identifying a specific batch of a bulk or packaged material.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Batch Number

Batch Code

Code identifying a specific batch of a bulk or packaged material.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Bill of Material

BOM

A list of components, assemblies and/or material required to manufacture a product.
BOM

Bill of Material

A list of components, assemblies and/or material required to manufacture a product.
Bond Wire


The wires used to make an electrical connection from the external leads to the die.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Broker Distributor


A type of Independent Distributor that works in a “Just in Time” (JIT) environment. Customers contact the Broker Distributor with requirements identifying the part number, quantity, target price, and date required. The Broker Distributor searches the industry and locates parts that meet the target price and other Customer requirements. Broker Distributors do not have contractual agreements or obligations with OCMs.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors


Companies/individuals engaged in the marketing of electronic parts, often scarce parts. Brokers frequently do not actually possess in inventory the parts being sought, but act as “middle men” to arrange the sale of the part from a third party.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Bulk


(1) Bulk is a term used to describe product that is being shipped loosely in boxes or bags. (2) A term used by Authorized (Franchised) Distributor to describe large quantity shipments of material packaged in tubes, trays or on reels.
Burn-In


Burn-in is a common term in the electronics industry and is the holding of an electrical device at an elevated temperature for a specified number of hours, generally with bias and an electrical load applied. (Bias is the application of an external d.c. voltage to set the upper and lower operating limits of a device) This is done in an attempt to stress all elements of the device at maximum rated operating conditions in order to reveal all stress and time dependent failure modes. In effect, burn-in is an accelerated aging process and is used particularly for semiconductor devices such as transistors, integrated circuits, etc.

Source: FDA website


A test which involves running a system or device for a period of time to ensure that all components are working properly.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


C
C of C

Certificate of Conformance
CoC

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
C of C/T

Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability
CoCT

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
CAGE Code


A Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code is a five (5) position unique identifier for entities doing or wishing to do business with the U.S. Federal Government. The format and character position of the code vary based on country.
Source: DLA website
CALCE

Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) is recognized as a founder and driving force behind the development and implementation of physics-of-failure (PoF) approaches to reliability, as well as a world leader in accelerated testing, electronic parts selection and management, and supply-chain management. CALCE is at the forefront of international standards development for critical electronic systems having chaired the development of several reliability and part selection standards. CALCE is staffed by over 100 faculty, staff and students, and in 1999 became the first academic research facility in the world to be ISO 9001 certified. Collectively, CALCE researchers have authored over 35 internationally acclaimed textbooks and well over 1000 research publications relevant to electronics reliability. Over the last 15 years, CALCE has invested over $75 million in developing methodologies, models, and tools that address the design, manufacture, analysis, and management of electronic systems.
Source: CALCE website
Carrier


The medium within which the parts are packed, i.e., tubes, reels, trays, tape, bulk bag.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
CCAP-101


This document describes a Certification Program for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit components supplied by Independent Distributors (ID). Implementation of this Program is mandatory for IDs to become Certified to CCAP-101 for Counterfeit Components Avoidance. The ID Procedures are designed for components purchased from the open market, not from OCM or Franchised Distributor (FD) and shall address both commercial electronic components and military electronic components and applies only to new components, which have never been installed on circuit boards or in equipment. The Certification Program provides for a choice of Level A (which includes electrical testing) or Level B (which excludes electrical testing except for specified passives). The customer must specify the level A or B to be supplied.
Date Published: 2013-11-13
Source: Component Technology Institute website
CEM

CM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE

The Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) is recognized as a founder and driving force behind the development and implementation of physics-of-failure (PoF) approaches to reliability, as well as a world leader in accelerated testing, electronic parts selection and management, and supply-chain management. CALCE is at the forefront of international standards development for critical electronic systems having chaired the development of several reliability and part selection standards. CALCE is staffed by over 100 faculty, staff and students, and in 1999 became the first academic research facility in the world to be ISO 9001 certified. Collectively, CALCE researchers have authored over 35 internationally acclaimed textbooks and well over 1000 research publications relevant to electronics reliability. Over the last 15 years, CALCE has invested over $75 million in developing methodologies, models, and tools that address the design, manufacture, analysis, and management of electronic systems.
Source: CALCE website
Certificate of Conformance

C of C
CoC

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability

C of C/T
CoCT

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Certification


The Certification Body action of testifying, guaranteeing or endorsing organizations that conform with specific management system standards.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A
Chipout


Pieces of the component body are chipped/broken.
Circuit Board Assembler


A company that manufacturers bare and/or assembled circuit boards.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
Clipped Lead


A lead that has been cut and is not in the original condition per the manufacturer’s specifications. A clipped lead could be indicative of tampering, previous use or damage.
Cloned Component

Cloned Part
Cloning

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Cloned Part

Cloned Component
Cloning

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Cloned Part


(1) A counterfeit part type. (2) The process of producing a copy. (3) An unauthorized copy of a part produced without the Intellectual Property Rights Holder’s knowledge or consent. (4) Parts that are illegally produced using reverse engineering. (4) Parts that are illegally produced after illegally obtaining the IP holder’s design specifications. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Tampered Part Note: “Cloning is commonly used by a wide variety of adversaries/counterfeiters (from small entity to large corporation) to copy a design in order to reduce the large development cost of a component. A cloned component is an unauthorized production without a legal IP. Cloning can be done in two ways – by reverse engineering, and by obtaining IPs illegally. In reverse engineering, counterfeiters copy designs and then manufacture (fabricate) components which are the exact copy of their original counterpart. Sometimes cloning can be done by copying the – contents of a memory used in a tag for electronic chip ID, bitstream targeted to programmable gate arrays, etc.” "
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Cloning

Cloned Component
Cloned Part

The complete manufacture of a reverse engineered device to have the same form, fit, and function as the original. Devices are produced on low end equipment and will not meet the original reliability requirements. Devices are branded and sold as Original Component Manufacturer (OCM) parts.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
CM

CEM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


CoC

C of C
Certificate of Conformance

A document provided by a Supplier formally declaring that all buyer purchase order requirements have been met. The document may include information such as the manufacturer, distributor, quantity, lot and/or date code, inspection date, etc., and is signed by a responsible party for the Supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
CoCT

C of C/T
Certificate of Conformance and Supply Chain Traceability

A Certificate of Conformance required by certain military specifications which requires documented supply chain traceability from the Qualified Parts List/Qualified Manufacturer’s List (QPL/QML) manufacturer through delivery to a government agency if the material is not procured directly from the approved manufacturer.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Commercial and Industrial Parts


Parts produced for a commercial and/or industrial use and normally manufactured to conform to a manufacturing organization’s specification or data sheet.
Source: JEDEC Standard No. 243, Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Non-Proliferation for Manufacturers
Commercial Off-The Shelf

COTS

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) is defined as "commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency.
Source: Defense Acquisition Guidebook [DAG].
Component Manufacturer

OCM
Original Component Manufacturer

An entity that designs and/or engineers a part and is pursuing or has obtained the intellectual property rights to that part. 1. The part and/or its packaging is typically identified with the OCM’s trademark. 2. OCMs may contract out the manufacturing and/or distribution of their product. 3. Different OCMs may supply product for the same application or to a common specification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Component Packaging

Packaging (Component)

Component packaging refers to the manner in which electronic parts are packaged in preparation for use by electronic assemblers. The determination of packaging types is determined by product sensitivities such as moisture, physical (lead pitch, co-planarity), electrostatic discharge (ESD), as well as the method (manually, or by use of automated equipment) to be used to place parts on the printed circuit board. There are four types of packaging: bulk, trays, tubes, and tape and reel.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Contingency Planning


A reserve of funds, time, and/or material that is allocated to maintain schedule and budget. A reserve for scope changes, unforeseen site conditions, change in material prices, or unanticipated events.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Continuity Test


In electrical applications, continuity testing is performed to verify if an electrical circuit is capable of conducting current.
Contract Electronics Manufacturer

CEM
CM
Contract Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Contract Manufacturer

CEM
CM
Contract Electronics Manufacturer

An organization that produces goods using EEE parts, under the label or brand of another organization. CEMs provide such services to organization based on their own or the customer's designs, formulas, and/or specifications.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A


A manufacturer that produces made-to-order custom electronic parts, including assembled electronic boards, for a private or government customer. Parts and board products manufactured by the contract manufacturer are not brand-name products marketed and sold by the contract manufacturer.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


COO

Country of Origin

The country where the device was manufactured. Some devices may have multiple COOs, with the die being manufactured in one country and the packaging assembly completed in a second.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Coplanarity


Applied to surface-mount semiconductor devices and is the plane formed by the three terminal apexes that exhibit the greatest perpendicular distance from the package substrate, provided that the triangle formed by those three apexes encompasses the projection of the center of gravity (COG) of the component.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and JEDEX, JESD22-B108B: Coplanarity Test for Surface-Mount Semiconductor Devices
Corrosion


Corrosion can be defined as the degradation of a material due to a reaction with its environment.
Source: NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory website.
COTS

Commercial Off-The Shelf

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) is defined as "commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency.
Source: Defense Acquisition Guidebook [DAG].
COUNTERFEIT


1. A fraudulent part that has been confirmed to be a copy, imitation, or substitute that has been represented, identified, or marked as genuine, and/or altered by a source without legal right with intent to mislead, deceive, or defraud.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors.


2. Counterfeit Electronic Part means an unlawful or unauthorized reproduction, substitution, or alteration that has been knowingly mismarked, misidentified, or otherwise misrepresented to be an authentic, unmodified electronic part from the original manufacturer, or a source with the express written authority of the original manufacturer or current design activity, including an authorized aftermarket manufacturer. Unlawful or unauthorized substitution includes used electronic parts represented as new, or the false indication of grade, serial number, lot number, date code, or performance characteristics.

Source: DFARS 252.246-7007


3. (1) An unauthorized copy, imitation, substitute, or modified part, which is knowingly misrepresented as a specified genuine part of the manufacturer. (2) Or a previously used EEE Part which has been modified and is knowingly misrepresented as new without disclosure to the customer that it has been previously used. NOTE: Examples of a counterfeit part can include, but are not limited to; the false identification of grade, serial number, date code or performance characteristics.

Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553Rev. B Counterfeit Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition


4. (1) an unauthorized a) copy, b) imitation, c) substitute, or d) modified electronic part, which is knowingly, recklessly or negligently misrepresented as a specified genuine electronic part of an authorized manufacturer; or (2) a previously used electronic part which has been modified and is knowingly, recklessly, or negligently misrepresented as new without disclosure to the customer that it has been previously used.

Source: SAE AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition per the letter submitted to NASA and DoD, June/July 2013


5. A counterfeit is an electronic part that is not genuine because it: is an unauthorized copy; does not conform to original OCM design, model, and/or performance standards; is not produced by the OCM or is produced by unauthorized contractors; is an off-specification, defective, or used OCM product sold as "new" or working; or has incorrect or false markings and/or documentation.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security Office of Technology Evaluation survey


6. An item that is an unauthorized copy or substitute that has been identified, marked or altered by a source other than the item’s legally authorized source, and has been misrepresented to be an authorized item of the legally authorized source.

Source: Department of Defense Instruction, Number 4140.67 DoD Counterfeit Prevention Policy (April 26, 2013)


7. Counterfeit electronic part means an unlawful or unauthorized reproduction, substitution, or alteration that has been knowingly mismarked, misidentified, or otherwise misrepresented to be an authentic, unmodified electronic part from the original manufacturer, or a source with the express written authority of the original manufacturer or current design activity, including an authorized aftermarket manufacturer. Unlawful or unauthorized substitution includes electronic parts represented as new, or the false identification of grade, serial number, lot number, date code, or performance characteristics.

Source: Final Rule Department of Defense Defense Acquisition Acquisition Regulations System: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts (DFARS Case 2012-D055) published in the Federal Register on May 6, 2014


8. A part made or altered to imitate or resemble an approved part without authority or right, and with the intent to mislead or defraud by passing as original or genuine.

Source: Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 21-29C, Detecting and Reporting Suspected Unapproved Parts.


9. For the purposes of this agreement: (a) “counterfeit trademark goods” shall mean any goods including packaging, bearing without authorization a trademark which is identical to the trademark validly registered in respect of such goods, or which cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from such a trademark and which thereby infringes the rights of the owner of the trademark in question under the law of the country of importation;

Source: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Part III – Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Article 51 Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities


10. Materiel whose origin, age, composition, configuration, certification status or other characteristic (including whether or not the materiel has been used previously) has been falsely represented by:
  • misleading marking of the materiel, labelling or packaging;
  • misleading documentation; or
  • any other means, including failing to disclose information;
except where it has been demonstrated that the misrepresentation was not the result of dishonesty by a supplier or sub-supplier within the supply chain.

Source: UK MOD DEF-STAN-05-135
Country of Origin

COO

The country where the device was manufactured. Some devices may have multiple COOs, with the die being manufactured in one country and the packaging assembly completed in a second.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Critical Safety Parts


Parts whose failure would cause loss of life, permanent disability or major injury, loss of a system, or significant equipment damage.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
Customs Seizure


The detention of a shipment by a customs entity. Reasons for seizure may include violation of intellectual property rights (e.g. counterfeit goods), restricted (e.g. subject to trade embargo), improper value declaration (undervalued shipments), etc.
D
Decap


The act of removing the top surface of a part in order to expose the die. Decapsulation can be chemical, mechanical, laser, or by heat and is destructive.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
DEF STAN 05-135

Defense Standard 05-135

This Defence Standard defines the arrangements that a supplier is required to establish to demonstrate that they are actively planning and managing the risk of counterfeit materiel in their supply chain to prevent delivery of such materiel to the MOD.
Date Published: 2014-07-10
Source: UK Ministry of Defence website
Defective Part


(1) A counterfeit part type. (2.) A part not manufactured in accordance with the Intellectual Property Rights Holder’s specifications that is rejected during final manufacturing testing and that is subsequently identified as defective and marked for destruction but that is sold and/or distributed without the IP holders knowledge or consent. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part Note: “The other variation of an untrusted foundry/assembly sourcing counterfeit components is out of specification or rejected components. They may either knowingly sell these components, or the components may be stolen and sold on open markets. During manufacturing tests, a component is considered defective if it produces an incorrect response to even one test vector. Sometimes, the probability of activating a component’s defective node is extremely small. If these components make their way into the supply chain, detection will be extremely difficult as they produce correct responses in most of the test cases. These components can pose a serious threat to the quality and reliability of a system.”"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement

DFARS

A supplement to the FAR that provides DoD-specific acquisition regulations that DoD government acquisition officials – and those contractors doing business with DoD – must follow in the procurement process for goods and services.
Source: Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) website
Defense Standard 05-135

DEF STAN 05-135

This Defence Standard defines the arrangements that a supplier is required to establish to demonstrate that they are actively planning and managing the risk of counterfeit materiel in their supply chain to prevent delivery of such materiel to the MOD.
Date Published: 2014-07-10
Source: UK Ministry of Defence website
Delamination


A failure found during tensile pull of flip chip solder joints, where the solder bump interconnection metallization is at least partially removed from either the substrate or the die, with the solder bump remaining continuous.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD22-B109, 6/02
Delayering


Delayering is a process that involves removing various layers from an integrated circuit.
Source: Nisene Technology Group website
Desiccant


An absorbent material used to maintain a low relative humidity.
Source: JEDEC website referencing J-STD-033B, 10/05
Destructive Physical Analysis


A systematic, logical, detailed examination of parts during various stages of physical disassembly, conducted on a sample of completed parts from a given lot, wherein parts are examined for a wide variety of design, workmanship, and/or processing problems. Information derived from DPA may be used to:
  • Preclude installation of inauthentic parts or parts having patent or latent defects
  • Aid indisposition of parts that exhibit anomalies
  • Aid in defining improvements or changes in design, materials, or processes
  • Evaluate Supplier production trends
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Device Marking Test (formerly Solvent A Test)


A chemical wipe test consisting of three (3) parts mineral spirits and one (1) part isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solution to check for ink marking permanency. See also Marking Permanency Testing.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Device Surface Test (formerly Solvent B Test)


A chemical wipe test using acetone to check for blacktopping of parts.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
DFARS

Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement

A supplement to the FAR that provides DoD-specific acquisition regulations that DoD government acquisition officials – and those contractors doing business with DoD – must follow in the procurement process for goods and services.
Source: Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) website
Die


A small, square or rectangle piece of semiconductor material usually silicon, onto which a complete integrated circuit is etched. The die is internal and encapsulated in the package.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Die Attach

Die Bond

The process or method of physically mounting a chip on a surface, substrate, header, etc.; also known as "die attach(ment)" or "chip attach(ment)".
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD51-1, 12/95
Die Bond

Die Attach

The process or method of physically mounting a chip on a surface, substrate, header, etc.; also known as "die attach(ment)" or "chip attach(ment)".
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD51-1, 12/95
Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages

DMSMS

DMSMS is defined by the Department of Defense (DoD) as the "...loss or impending loss of the last known manufacturer or supplier of raw material, production parts, or repair parts," and by industry as the "...loss or impending loss of the original manufacturer or supplier of raw material, production parts or repair parts." An obsolete device is part of a larger system that is no longer manufactured by the original manufacturer. DMSMS management is a multidisciplinary process to identify issues resulting from obsolescence, loss of manufacturing sources, or material shortages; to access the potential for a negative impacts to readiness; to analyze potential mitigation strategies; and then to implement the most cost-effective strategy.
Department of Defense - http://www.dsp.dla.mil/APP_UIL/displayPage.aspx?action=content&accounttype=displayHTML&contentid=56
Discrete Components

Active Discrete Components
Passive Discrete Components

Discrete components are simply defined as single element (circuit) electronic devices. Discrete devices are subgrouped by passive (primarily to regulate voltage and current flows, although they cannot achieve power gain) and active (switching devices, with the exception of LED). Most commonly and for relevance in inspection methodologies, passive discrete components do not contain a silicon wafer while active components do. Active Discrete components increase the power of a signal and must be supplied with the signal and a source of power. The signal is fed into one connection of the active device and the amplified version taken from another connection. In a transistor, the signal can be applied to the base connection and the amplified version taken from the collector. The source of power is usually a direct current voltage from a battery or power supply. Examples are bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, light emitting diodes (LED), metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFED), etc. Passive Discrete components do not increase the power of a signal. They often cause power to be lost. Some can increase the voltage at the expense of current, so overall there is a loss of power. Examples are resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes (the latter is a special case).
Sources: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and White Horse Laboratories, Ltd
Disposition


Decisions made by authorized representatives within an Organization concerning future treatment of nonconforming material. Examples of dispositions are to scrap, use-as-is (normally accompanied by an approved variance/waiver), retest, rework, repair, or return-to-supplier.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553Rev. B Counterfeit Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition
Distribution Agreement


A specific, written contract between the manufacturing organization and the authorized distributor that authorizes the distributor to resell the manufacturing organizations parts. NOTE 1 Contractual terms include, but are not limited to, distribution region, distribution products or lines, and warranty flow down from the manufacturer. NOTE 2 These agreements often include failure analysis support, return privileges, and product change notifications as well.
Source: JEDEC Standard No. 243, Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Non-Proliferation for Manufacturers
DMSMS

Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages

DMSMS is defined by the Department of Defense (DoD) as the "...loss or impending loss of the last known manufacturer or supplier of raw material, production parts, or repair parts," and by industry as the "...loss or impending loss of the original manufacturer or supplier of raw material, production parts or repair parts." An obsolete device is part of a larger system that is no longer manufactured by the original manufacturer. DMSMS management is a multidisciplinary process to identify issues resulting from obsolescence, loss of manufacturing sources, or material shortages; to access the potential for a negative impacts to readiness; to analyze potential mitigation strategies; and then to implement the most cost-effective strategy.
Department of Defense - http://www.dsp.dla.mil/APP_UIL/displayPage.aspx?action=content&accounttype=displayHTML&contentid=56
DNA Marking


In the electronics industry, the use of DNA applied to a microcircuit or device to enable supply chain traceability. If applied by a manufacturer, DNA marking can be used to verify authenticity.
DNA Taggant


DNA contained in a material (e.g. paint, ink, textile, etc.) applied to a microcircuit or device.
DOD Counterfeit Prevention Policy

DOD Instruction (DODI) No. 4140.67

On April 26, 2013 — ten months after the date required by Section 818 — the Pentagon released DOD Instruction (DODI) No. 4140.67, the ‘‘DOD Counterfeit Prevention Policy,’’ which responds to the law’s direction. DODI 4140.67 establishes DOD’s policy and assigns responsibilities necessary to prevent the introduction of ‘‘counterfeit material’’ at ‘‘any level’’ of the DOD supply chain. The DODI extends beyond electronic parts (the focus of Section 818) to all ‘‘materiel,’’ which is defined very broadly, applying to system components and subcomponents as well as to software and information and communications technology (ICT). The new DODI addresses anticounterfeit measures for weapon systems as well as information systems. That counterfeit materiel avoidance policy now extends outside electronic parts and specifically to both software and ICT is a further indication of DOD’s emphasis on areas where cyber security and information assurance concerns interact with counterfeit parts prevention. Going beyond Section 818, which applied to electronic parts and large government contractors, the new DODI applies to any form of at-risk materiel and ‘‘at any level of the DOD supply chain.’’
Source: Robert S. Metzger, Rogers Joseph O’Donnell, P.C.
DOD Instruction (DODI) No. 4140.67

DOD Counterfeit Prevention Policy

On April 26, 2013 — ten months after the date required by Section 818 — the Pentagon released DOD Instruction (DODI) No. 4140.67, the ‘‘DOD Counterfeit Prevention Policy,’’ which responds to the law’s direction. DODI 4140.67 establishes DOD’s policy and assigns responsibilities necessary to prevent the introduction of ‘‘counterfeit material’’ at ‘‘any level’’ of the DOD supply chain. The DODI extends beyond electronic parts (the focus of Section 818) to all ‘‘materiel,’’ which is defined very broadly, applying to system components and subcomponents as well as to software and information and communications technology (ICT). The new DODI addresses anticounterfeit measures for weapon systems as well as information systems. That counterfeit materiel avoidance policy now extends outside electronic parts and specifically to both software and ICT is a further indication of DOD’s emphasis on areas where cyber security and information assurance concerns interact with counterfeit parts prevention. Going beyond Section 818, which applied to electronic parts and large government contractors, the new DODI applies to any form of at-risk materiel and ‘‘at any level of the DOD supply chain.’’
Source: Robert S. Metzger, Rogers Joseph O’Donnell, P.C.
DOD Section 818

NDAA 2012 Section 818
Section 818

(1.) Directs the Secretary to assess DOD acquisition policies and systems for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (2.) Outlines specific actions to be taken by the Secretary following such assessment, including revising the DOD Supplement to FAR to address such detection and avoidance. (3.) Provides contractor responsibilities relating to such detection and avoidance. (4.) Requires DOD contractors and subcontractors at all tiers, whenever possible, to obtain electronic parts from trusted suppliers (as compiled by DOD). (5.) Requires any DOD contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware of or has reason to suspect that any end item, component, part, or material contained in supplies purchased by DOD is counterfeit to report such fact to appropriate government authorities and the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program. (6.) Directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a methodology for the targeting of imported electronic parts as counterfeit sources. (7.) Requires the DOD Secretary to implement a program to enhance contractor detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (8.) Amends the federal criminal code to provide criminal penalties for the intentional trafficking in counterfeit military goods or services. (9.) Requires the Attorney General to include in an annual report to Congress on Department of Justice (DOJ) business all DOJ actions taken with respect to such trafficking.
Source: GovTrack Website.
Dry pack


Dry pack consists of desiccant material and a Humidity Indicator Card (HIC) sealed with the Surface Mount Device (SMD) packages inside a moisture barrier bag (MBB).
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and IPC/JEDEC, J-STD-033B.1: Handling, Packing, Shipping and Use of Moisture/Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Devices
Dynasolve


A Dynaloy custom-manufactured conformal coating remover product designed to strip specific polymer materials from all types of electronic components.
Source: Dynaloy website.
E
ECM

Electronic contract manufacturing
Electronic manufacturing services
EMS

Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronic contract manufacturing (ECM).
Boy Luethje, Industry and Innovation, Volume 9, Number 3, 227-247, December 2002
EEE Part


Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts are components designed and built to perform specific functions, and are not subject to disassembly without destruction or impairment of design use. Examples of electrical parts include resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and connectors. Electronic parts include active devices, such as monolithic microcircuits, hybrid microcircuits, diodes, and transistors. Electromechanical parts are devices that have electrical inputs with mechanical outputs, or mechanical inputs with electrical outputs, or combinations of each. Examples of electromechanical parts are motors, synchros, servos, and some relays. Defined in Section 818, paragraph (f)(2) of PL 112-81-Dec 31, 2011 as “an integrated circuit, a discrete electronic component (including, but not limited to, a transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode), or a circuit assembly.” It also includes any embedded software or firmware.
SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors and Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
EIA/ECA-CB21


A Statement issued by members of EIA/ECA Steering Committee S-1
Date Published: 2005-11
Source: EIA website
Electronic contract manufacturing

ECM
Electronic manufacturing services
EMS

Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronic contract manufacturing (ECM).
Boy Luethje, Industry and Innovation, Volume 9, Number 3, 227-247, December 2002
Electronic manufacturing services

ECM
Electronic contract manufacturing
EMS

Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronic contract manufacturing (ECM).
Boy Luethje, Industry and Innovation, Volume 9, Number 3, 227-247, December 2002
Electronic Measurement Tools


Measuring equipment such as multimeters, continuity checkers, and capacitance meters used to measure for continuity, resistance, and capacitance of electronic devices in order to help determine if the part under inspection meets the manufacturer’s specification.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Electronic Part


Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts are components designed and built to perform specific functions, and are not subject to disassembly without destruction or impairment of design use. Examples of electrical parts include resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and connectors. Electronic parts include active devices, such as monolithic microcircuits, hybrid microcircuits, diodes, and transistors. Electromechanical parts are devices that have electrical inputs with mechanical outputs, or mechanical inputs with electrical outputs, or combinations of each. Examples of electromechanical parts are motors, synchros, servos, and some relays. Defined in Section 818, paragraph (f)(2) of PL 112-81-Dec 31, 2011 as “an integrated circuit, a discrete electronic component (including, but not limited to, a transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode), or a circuit assembly.” It also includes any embedded software or firmware.
SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors and Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
Electronic Resellers Association International


ERAI, Inc. was formerly known as the Electronic Resellers Association International.
Electronic Waste


Discarded electronic devices, assemblies, sub-assemblies, components, and substances involved in their manufacture or use. E-Waste is exported to lesser-developed low wage nations such as China, India and parts of Africa due to mediocre or non-existent environmental standards and working safety laws. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, millions of tons of electronic waste is gathered and exported annually to these regions. Only a small percentage of the waste collected is recycled. The balance of this material is exported overseas to “dismantling shops” where precious metals and electronic components are extracted for resale. This continuous supply of material is fueling the counterfeit market. International treaties are supposed to prohibit and deter the exportation of obsolete computer hardware from developed to developing countries; however, there are loopholes in the system. The waste that is sent to these regions for processing is done so illegally by transporting the goods through alternate ports, disguised as charitable donations or is done despite international laws and with lack of controls. It is well known that China is the largest recipient of E-Waste and that they have found more than one way to profit from global waste disposal. In certain regions of China, entire communities rely on E-Waste and counterfeit component trade as a source of revenue. (Also see ERAI Special Report Titled: A TIME FOR CHANGE)
Electrostatic Discharge

ESD

The rapid, spontaneous transfer of electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field. Note: Usually, the charge flows through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach one another. Details of such processes, such as the rate of the charge transfer, are described in specific electrostatic discharge models.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and ESDA, ESD ADV1.0-2009: ESD Association Advisory for Electrostatic Discharge Terminology.
Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity

Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility
ESDS

The lowest level level of electrostatic discharge (ESD) that produces changes in device characteristics such that the device fails to meet its specified parameters.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD625-A, 12/99.
Electrostatic Discharge Shield

ESD Shield

A barrier or enclosure that limits the passage of current and attenuates an electromagnetic field resulting from an electrostatic discharge. See ANSI/ESD S541, Packaging Materials for ESD Sensitive Items, for more information about ESD shielding and appropriate packaging materials.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and ESDA, ESD ADV1.0-2009: ESD Association Advisory for Electrostatic Discharge Terminology.
Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility

Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity
ESDS

The lowest level level of electrostatic discharge (ESD) that produces changes in device characteristics such that the device fails to meet its specified parameters.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD625-A, 12/99.
EMS

ECM
Electronic contract manufacturing
Electronic manufacturing services

Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronic contract manufacturing (ECM).
Boy Luethje, Industry and Innovation, Volume 9, Number 3, 227-247, December 2002
End User


An organization that uses a product. (e.g. NASA, UK MoD, US DoD).
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A
End-Of-Life Component


A component that will no longer be manufactured by the original component manufacturer.
End-Of-Life Notice

PDN
Product Discontinuation Notice

A notice issued by an original component manufacturer that confirms that a particular component will no longer be manufactured.
ERAI Smart Logo


The ERAI Smart Logo is a website script provided by ERAI to be placed on a Member’s website throughout a membership term. When a visitor to the Member’s website clicks on the ERAI Smart Logo, they will be presented with a verification of the company’s membership status in the ERAI website.
ERAI, Inc.


ERAI, Inc. is a privately held global information services organization that monitors, investigates and reports issues affecting the global semiconductor supply chain. Since 1995, ERAI tools and services have assisted buyers and sellers from all sectors of the supply chain in preventing loss by mitigating risk in the material purchasing process. Our unique service enables companies to perform industry specific risk mitigation on suspect counterfeit, high-risk and non-conforming parts, as well as, problematic vendors and customers. As the world's largest database of non-conforming material, ERAI is leading the fight against the sale of counterfeit and high-risk components and promoting a higher level of awareness via data-sharing, education, training and networking. The evolving global marketplace has made ERAI a necessary service for anyone involved in the electronic supply chain.
ESD

Electrostatic Discharge

The rapid, spontaneous transfer of electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field. Note: Usually, the charge flows through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach one another. Details of such processes, such as the rate of the charge transfer, are described in specific electrostatic discharge models.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and ESDA, ESD ADV1.0-2009: ESD Association Advisory for Electrostatic Discharge Terminology.
ESD Shield

Electrostatic Discharge Shield

A barrier or enclosure that limits the passage of current and attenuates an electromagnetic field resulting from an electrostatic discharge. See ANSI/ESD S541, Packaging Materials for ESD Sensitive Items, for more information about ESD shielding and appropriate packaging materials.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and ESDA, ESD ADV1.0-2009: ESD Association Advisory for Electrostatic Discharge Terminology.
ESDS

Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity
Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility

The lowest level level of electrostatic discharge (ESD) that produces changes in device characteristics such that the device fails to meet its specified parameters.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD625-A, 12/99.
Excess Inventory


Legitimate, genuine new electronic part product held by OCMs, OEMs, authorized distributors, contract manufacturers, and U.S. government agencies.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
Exterior Defect


(1) A counterfeit indicator. (2) Defects related to product packaging and/or shipping (e.g. invalid date or lot code, paperwork, product labels, etc.); part leads, balls or columns (e.g. oxidation, exposed copper, scratches, dents, etc.); package (e.g. unidirectional abrasions/sanding, burn marks, inconsistent texture, package mold variations, etc.) See: Physical Defect, Interior Defect Note: “Exterior defects are related to packaging/shipping, leads/balls/columns, and package of a component. The most obvious defects will be ones that are associated with the packaging or shipping the parts arrived in. The leads/balls/columns of an IC can show how the part has been handled if it was previously used. Physically, they should adhere to datasheet specifications, including size and shape. The final coating on the leads should conform to the specification sheet. The package of an IC can reveal significant information about the chip. As this is the location where all model numbers, country of origin, date codes, and other information are etched, counterfeiters will try to be especially careful not to damage anything and to keep the package looking as authentic as possible.”"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Extraneous Matter


Substance(s) not normally found on a device.
F
FAA AC 00-56A


Describes a system for the voluntary accreditation of civil aircraft parts distributors on the basis of voluntary industry oversight and provides information that may be used for developing accreditation programs. The FAA believes such programs will assist in alleviating lack of documentation and will improve traceability.
Revision Number: A
Date Published: 2002-06-12
Source: FAA website
Faulty Product


1. Parts containing a fault or defect; imperfect or defective. 2. Parts that do not work in compliance with the manufacturer’s specified data sheet due to a defect or imperfection. 3. Parts that do not work as intended, that have unpredictable effects when it malfunctions. The term Faulty Product may sometimes be used in the supply chain to describe visually nonconforming goods.
Finding


Information or a characteristic about a part that indicates a nonconforming attribute. The quality management system within an Organization may have established policies that predisposition certain findings, while other findings must be reviewed by a subject matter expert or a team of subject matter experts within an Organization for final disposition.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Fine and Gross Leak Test

Hermetic Seal Test
Hermeticity Verification

Hermeticity Testing (also known as Fine and Gross Leak) is used to determine the effectiveness of the seal in microelectronic component packages. If the package seal is damaged or defective, moisture and other contaminants can enter into the package freely and degrade the long-term reliability.
Source: Six Sigma website
Finger Cots


A material handling supply that is inserted over the finger when handling sensitive components to prevent contamination.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Fluorescent Dye Penetrant


An inspection method used to detect surface cracks in components using a penetrant solution, a developer, and ultraviolet or white light. A penetrant solution is applied to the component followed by a developer to help draw penetrant out of surface cracks, rendering cracks visible under ultraviolet or white light.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Franchised Distribution


Franchised Distribution is considered synonymous with Authorized Distribution (see “Authorized Distribution” definition above).
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Fraudulent Part


Any suspect part misrepresented to the Customer as meeting the Customer’s requirements.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors.
G
GIDEP

Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

A cooperative activity between government and industry participants seeking to reduce or eliminate expenditures of resources by sharing technical information essential during research, design, development, production and operational phases of the life cycle of systems, facilities and equipment.
Source: GIDEP website
Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

GIDEP

A cooperative activity between government and industry participants seeking to reduce or eliminate expenditures of resources by sharing technical information essential during research, design, development, production and operational phases of the life cycle of systems, facilities and equipment.
Source: GIDEP website
Gray Market


The trade of parts through distribution channels which, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by Original Component Manufacturers.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
H
HCT

Heated Chemical Test

The process of using a heated solvent to remove a secondary coating(e.g. blacktopping) from a suspect counterfeit component.
Heated Chemical Test

HCT

The process of using a heated solvent to remove a secondary coating(e.g. blacktopping) from a suspect counterfeit component.
Hermetic Seal Test

Fine and Gross Leak Test
Hermeticity Verification

Hermeticity Testing (also known as Fine and Gross Leak) is used to determine the effectiveness of the seal in microelectronic component packages. If the package seal is damaged or defective, moisture and other contaminants can enter into the package freely and degrade the long-term reliability.
Source: Six Sigma website
Hermeticity Verification

Fine and Gross Leak Test
Hermetic Seal Test

Hermeticity Testing (also known as Fine and Gross Leak) is used to determine the effectiveness of the seal in microelectronic component packages. If the package seal is damaged or defective, moisture and other contaminants can enter into the package freely and degrade the long-term reliability.
Source: Six Sigma website
HIC

Humidity Indicator Card
Moisture Indicator Card

A card typically packaged inside a moisture barrier bag (MBB) that is used to determine the relative humidity the card was exposed to while inside the moisture barrier bag (MBB). Refer to J-STD-033 for more technical information.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
High Risk


Materiel that has previously been counterfeited or is susceptible to counterfeiting and has an end use or application where the success or security of the mission, or safety of the warfighter, depends on the continued reliable function of the materiel.
Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
Homogeneous Lot


A group of parts that: a. Is received in a single shipment (whether in single or multiple packages), b. Is marked or otherwise identified with identical lot, batch, run, and identification information (e.g., dates codes, lot codes), c. Is identical in appearance to the unaided eye (parts and packaging), d. Appear to have been subjected to the same handling, packaging, and/or storage conditions, and e. Has maintained their physical placement relative to each other (i.e., have never been separated based on evidence such as source, packaging, labeling).
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Humidity Indicator Card

HIC
Moisture Indicator Card

A card typically packaged inside a moisture barrier bag (MBB) that is used to determine the relative humidity the card was exposed to while inside the moisture barrier bag (MBB). Refer to J-STD-033 for more technical information.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
I
IDEA

Independent Distributors of Electronics Association

Acronym for the Independent Distributors of Electronics Association. The Independent Distributors of Electronics Association (IDEA) is a global trade association comprised of organizations dedicated to quality initiatives that provide Responsible Procurement Solutions™ to the supply chain. IDEA seeks to fulfill this mission through sustained leadership in the implementation of quality standards, certifications, best practices, and counterfeit detection methods as well as the cooperation and education of all stakeholders through the development and dissemination of relevant standards, training, and certification programs that promote industry quality, knowledge, and integrity.
Source: IDEA website
IDEA Standard 1010B

IDEA-STD-1010B

The Standard sets forth practices and requirements for visual examination and acceptability criteria of electronic components purchased and sold in the Open Market. Practices are generally accepted industry methods and are provided in the Standard for guidance only; they are not mandatory. Requirements are mandatory conditions essential for indicating acceptable products in accordance with the Standard. Revision B of the Standard includes new sections that provide reference and guidelines for the use of Test Facilities and the understanding and use of advanced inspection techniques.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
IDEA-STD-1010B

IDEA Standard 1010B

The Standard sets forth practices and requirements for visual examination and acceptability criteria of electronic components purchased and sold in the Open Market. Practices are generally accepted industry methods and are provided in the Standard for guidance only; they are not mandatory. Requirements are mandatory conditions essential for indicating acceptable products in accordance with the Standard. Revision B of the Standard includes new sections that provide reference and guidelines for the use of Test Facilities and the understanding and use of advanced inspection techniques.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
IDEA-STD-1010-B


The standard sets forth practices and requirements for visual examination and acceptability criteria of electronic components purchased and sold in the Open Market.
Revision Number: B
Date Published: April 2011
Source: IDEA website
IEC/TS 62668-1 ed2.0


IEC TS 62668-1:2014(en) defines requirements for avoiding the use of counterfeit, recycled and fraudulent components used in the aerospace, defence and high performance (ADHP) industries. It also defines requirements for ADHP industries to maintain their intellectual property for all of their products and services. The risks associated with purchasing components outside of franchised distributor networks are considered in IEC TS 62668-2. Although developed for the avionics industry, this specification may be applied by other high performance and high reliability industries at their discretion. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
  • update of "fraudulent component" definition, addition of "recycled component" and "suspect component" definitions, and update of the concerned clauses accordingly;
  • addition of counterfeit awareness training as a requirement;
  • revision to update all references and web links in the annexes.
Revision Number: 2.0
Date Published: 2014-07-10
Source: International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) website
Independent Distributor


A distributor that purchases parts with the intention to sell and redistribute them back into the market. Purchased parts may be obtained from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) or Contract Manufacturers (typically from excess inventories), or from other Distributors (Franchised, Authorized, or Independent). Resale of the purchased parts (redistribution) may be to OEMs, Contract Manufacturers, or other Distributors. Independent Distributors do not normally have contractual agreements or obligations with OCMs. See definition or “Authorized (Franchised) Distributor”.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Independent Distributors of Electronics Association

IDEA

Acronym for the Independent Distributors of Electronics Association. The Independent Distributors of Electronics Association (IDEA) is a global trade association comprised of organizations dedicated to quality initiatives that provide Responsible Procurement Solutions™ to the supply chain. IDEA seeks to fulfill this mission through sustained leadership in the implementation of quality standards, certifications, best practices, and counterfeit detection methods as well as the cooperation and education of all stakeholders through the development and dissemination of relevant standards, training, and certification programs that promote industry quality, knowledge, and integrity.
Source: IDEA website
Industry Standards


A set of criteria within an industry relating to the standard functioning and carrying out of operations in its respective field of production. Generally accepted requirements followed by the members of an industry. It provides an orderly and systematic formulation, adoption, or application of standards used in a particular industry or sector of the economy. Industry standards vary from one industry to another (e.g. SAE AS5553A, SAE AS6462, SAE AS6081, SAE ARP6178, SAE AS6174, SAE AS6301).
Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
Integrated Circuit


Integrated circuits, also referred to as ICs, are devices with multiple circuits on a single die. The die is generally made of etched silicon, although technology has evolved for specification applications, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) for ultra-high frequencies. There is a wide variation of integrated circuit complexity, including both digital and analog signal storage and management. There are two types of integrated circuits: Monolithic and Hybrids. Monolithic ICs are made of semiconductor devices and may include passive components, manufactured in a single die. Hybrid ICs are made of semiconductor devices and may include passive components but bonded together in a common substrate or board. Hybrid ICs can also be a combination of two or more ICs and/or other discrete components (like some power drivers, combining a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a Control IC). Integrated Circuits are generally classified as: Analog • Operational Amplifiers • FM transceivers • Regulators • RF Prescalers Digital • Memory • Processors • Controllers • FPGA Mixed-Signal • Digital-to-analog converters • Analog-to-digital converters • Motor Drivers • Power Management Devices
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and White Horse Laboratories.
Interior Defect


(1) A counterfeit indicator. (2)Defects related to the interior structure of a device. (e.g. bond wires, die, etc.) See: Physical Defect, Exterior Defect Note: “Interior defects are mainly divided into two types: bond wire and die-related defects. Some common defects related to bond wires are missing/broken bond wires inside the package, a poor connection between the die and bond wire, etc. The die reveals a significant amount of relevant information regarding the component. Die-related defects include die markings, cracks, etc.”"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
International Organization for Standardization

ISO

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer of voluntary International Standards. International Standards give state of the art specifications for products, services and good practice, helping to make industry more efficient and effective. Developed through global consensus, they help to break down barriers to international trade.
Source: ISO website
ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer of voluntary International Standards. International Standards give state of the art specifications for products, services and good practice, helping to make industry more efficient and effective. Developed through global consensus, they help to break down barriers to international trade.
Source: ISO website
ISO 14001

ISO 14001 – Environmental Management Standard

ISO 14001:2004 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system and can be certified to. It does not state requirements for environmental performance, but maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. It can be used by any organization regardless of its activity or sector. Using ISO 14001:2004 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved. The benefits of using ISO 14001:2004 can include: • Reduced cost of waste management • Savings in consumption of energy and materials • Lower distribution costs • Improved corporate image among regulators, customers and the public
Source: ISO website
ISO 14001 – Environmental Management Standard

ISO 14001

ISO 14001:2004 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system and can be certified to. It does not state requirements for environmental performance, but maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. It can be used by any organization regardless of its activity or sector. Using ISO 14001:2004 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved. The benefits of using ISO 14001:2004 can include: • Reduced cost of waste management • Savings in consumption of energy and materials • Lower distribution costs • Improved corporate image among regulators, customers and the public
Source: ISO website
ISO 9001

ISO 9001 – Quality Management Standard

ISO 9001:2008 sets out the criteria for a quality management system and is the only standard in the family that can be certified to (although this is not a requirement). It can be used by any organization, large or small, regardless of its field of activity. In fact ISO 9001:2008 is implemented by over one million companies and organizations in over 170 countries. The standard is based on a number of quality management principles including a strong customer focus, the motivation and implication of top management, the process approach and continual improvement. These principles are explained in more detail in the pdf Quality Management Principles. Using ISO 9001:2008 helps ensure that customers get consistent, good quality products and services, which in turn brings many business benefits. Checking that the system works is a vital part of ISO 9001:2008. An organization must perform internal audits to check how its quality management system is working. An organization may decide to invite an independent certification body to verify that it is in conformity to the standard, but there is no requirement for this. Alternatively, it might invite its clients to audit the quality system for themselves. Read more about certification to management system standards.
Source: ISO website
ISO 9001 – Quality Management Standard

ISO 9001

ISO 9001:2008 sets out the criteria for a quality management system and is the only standard in the family that can be certified to (although this is not a requirement). It can be used by any organization, large or small, regardless of its field of activity. In fact ISO 9001:2008 is implemented by over one million companies and organizations in over 170 countries. The standard is based on a number of quality management principles including a strong customer focus, the motivation and implication of top management, the process approach and continual improvement. These principles are explained in more detail in the pdf Quality Management Principles. Using ISO 9001:2008 helps ensure that customers get consistent, good quality products and services, which in turn brings many business benefits. Checking that the system works is a vital part of ISO 9001:2008. An organization must perform internal audits to check how its quality management system is working. An organization may decide to invite an independent certification body to verify that it is in conformity to the standard, but there is no requirement for this. Alternatively, it might invite its clients to audit the quality system for themselves. Read more about certification to management system standards.
Source: ISO website
ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO/IEC 17025:2005

ISO/IEC 17025:2005 specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. It is applicable to all organizations performing tests and/or calibrations. These include, for example, first-, second- and third-party laboratories, and laboratories where testing and/or calibration forms part of inspection and product certification.
Source: ISO website
ISO/IEC 17025:2005

ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO/IEC 17025:2005 specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. It is applicable to all organizations performing tests and/or calibrations. These include, for example, first-, second- and third-party laboratories, and laboratories where testing and/or calibration forms part of inspection and product certification.
Source: ISO website
J
JESD31D.01


This publication identifies the general requirements for Distributors that supply Commercial and Military products. This standard applies to all discrete semiconductors, integrated circuits and Hybrids, whether packaged or in wafer/die form, manufactured by all Manufacturers. The requirements defined within this publication are only applicable to products for which ownership remains with the Distributor or Manufacturer.
Revision Number: 01
Date Published: 2012-09
Source: JEDEC website
K
Known Authentic Part


A part which has either been purchased directly from the manufacturer, their authorized distributors, or authenticated by the manufacturer with supporting documentation.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
L
Last Time Buy Date


The last day that an order can be placed with the manufacturer to purchase a component before it becomes obsolete.
Last Time Ship Date


The last day that a part was shipped by the manufacturer prior to obsolescence.
Latent Defect


A physical defect inherent in the process architecture, design, or layout, or created during manufacturing (wafer fabrication or assembly) that is manifested after some period of operation.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JEP143B.01, 6/08
Lead Coplanarity


Is defined as the vertical lead position with respect to a reference plane measured after forming. The reference plane is defined by the three lowest leads from the bottom of the package.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Leader

Trailer

The blank pockets at the beginning and ending of component carrier tape.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Leadframe


A metal structure to which a die is attached. Wire bonds then connect the die to the leads. This is then encapsulated, usually in plastic but can be metal or ceramic, to cover and complete the device.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
Life Cycle


The entire life of an item of equipment, from conceptual design through to disposal.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
M
Marking Permanency Test

MPT

External visual inspection may reveal evidence of remarking where the original marking was removed by chemical or mechanical means, and the marking area was resurfaced or masked with a material that may or may not match the original surface. Any removal of the original surface finish, laser markings, or ink markings is an indication the part may be fraudulent or counterfeit. This first test focuses on ink part markings and is a modified resistance-to-solvents test. To perform this test, mix a solution of three (3) parts mineral spirits (CAS Registry Number 9072-35-9) with one (1) part isopropyl alcohol (CAS Registry Number: 67-63-0). Dip a cotton swab into the solution, and wipe the swab across the markings on the part. The markings should not smear or be removed by the solution. However, more agressive test methods that will also test for resurfacing reveal other indications that the original device marking has been removed.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Microblasting


The process of microblasting uses a very fine abrasive media at 10 to 50 micron size which is then propelled through a fine-tip nozzle. This is used to texture or cut through materials where exacting detail is required. See also Sandblasting and Relabeling.
Source: Engineering TV website.
Military Parts


Any product that is offered to customers by the manufacturer for use in US military and similar types of systems applications (e.g., QPL, QML, MIL-STD-883, standard microcircuit drawings, specification or source control drawings, selected or altered item drawings).
Source: JEDEC Standard No. 243, Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Non-Proliferation for Manufacturers
Military Screening


Military systems often need product which will perform beyond the standard data sheet specifications. To satisfy this need, standard product is screened to military specifications. Upon successful completion of the screening, the parts are marked to a special part designation and are generally sold at a much higher price than the standard part.
Moisture Indicator Card

HIC
Humidity Indicator Card

A card typically packaged inside a moisture barrier bag (MBB) that is used to determine the relative humidity the card was exposed to while inside the moisture barrier bag (MBB). Refer to J-STD-033 for more technical information.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
MPT

Marking Permanency Test

External visual inspection may reveal evidence of remarking where the original marking was removed by chemical or mechanical means, and the marking area was resurfaced or masked with a material that may or may not match the original surface. Any removal of the original surface finish, laser markings, or ink markings is an indication the part may be fraudulent or counterfeit. This first test focuses on ink part markings and is a modified resistance-to-solvents test. To perform this test, mix a solution of three (3) parts mineral spirits (CAS Registry Number 9072-35-9) with one (1) part isopropyl alcohol (CAS Registry Number: 67-63-0). Dip a cotton swab into the solution, and wipe the swab across the markings on the part. The markings should not smear or be removed by the solution. However, more agressive test methods that will also test for resurfacing reveal other indications that the original device marking has been removed.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
N
NDAA 2012 Section 818

DOD Section 818
Section 818

(1.) Directs the Secretary to assess DOD acquisition policies and systems for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (2.) Outlines specific actions to be taken by the Secretary following such assessment, including revising the DOD Supplement to FAR to address such detection and avoidance. (3.) Provides contractor responsibilities relating to such detection and avoidance. (4.) Requires DOD contractors and subcontractors at all tiers, whenever possible, to obtain electronic parts from trusted suppliers (as compiled by DOD). (5.) Requires any DOD contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware of or has reason to suspect that any end item, component, part, or material contained in supplies purchased by DOD is counterfeit to report such fact to appropriate government authorities and the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program. (6.) Directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a methodology for the targeting of imported electronic parts as counterfeit sources. (7.) Requires the DOD Secretary to implement a program to enhance contractor detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (8.) Amends the federal criminal code to provide criminal penalties for the intentional trafficking in counterfeit military goods or services. (9.) Requires the Attorney General to include in an annual report to Congress on Department of Justice (DOJ) business all DOJ actions taken with respect to such trafficking.
Source: GovTrack Website.
NDE

NDI
NDT
Nondestructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Inspection
Nondestructive Testing

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
NDI

NDE
NDT
Nondestructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Inspection
Nondestructive Testing

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
NDT

NDE
NDI
Nondestructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Inspection
Nondestructive Testing

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
New


(1.) Electronic Components that have not been previously used in any capacity.
(2.) Goods that are free of any physical defects such as: scratches, test marks, third party markings, programs or bent leads. (The leads on NEW parts should be in pristine condition; this does not mean refurbished, if the leads have been retinned / refurbished, they should be classified as refurbished.)
(3.) New product should be packaged in the original manufacturers packaging (tubes, trays, reels, or as is specified by the manufacturer). This does not mean the original factory box OR factory sealed.
(4.) Components in tubes and in trays should have the same date code, lot code and country of origin. Components on a reel should have the same date code, lot code and country of origin unless otherwise specified on the original factory label. (i.e., as was packaged by the original manufacturer) A distributor can sell more than one date code in a shipment, however all components in a single tube, tray or reel, etc., should contain a consistent date code, (including week code and lot code) and country of origin.
(5.) New product does not need to be factory sealed in order to meet the industry standard definition of "new". However, moisture sensitive and static sensitive devices should be packaged in the proper ESD packaging material.
Nondestructive Evaluation

NDE
NDI
NDT
Nondestructive Inspection
Nondestructive Testing

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Nondestructive Inspection

NDE
NDI
NDT
Nondestructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Testing

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Nondestructive Testing

NDE
NDI
NDT
Nondestructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Inspection

Can also be described as Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). NDT encompasses a wide variety of analytical techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of materials, components, subcomponents, or systems without damaging or permanently altering them.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
O
Obsolescence

Obsolete

The term obsolete means the product or part is no longer in use, even though it may still be in working order. It is a term associated with outdated designs that are no longer supported by the manufacturer. A component may be referred to as obsolete if that product is no longer available from the original component manufacturer or through their franchised or authorized supplier. When components become unavailable through authorized supply channels, it typically becomes necessary to engage procurement activities from the open market. Independent Distributors become a valuable resource when a buyer is in need of obsolete material.
Obsolete

Obsolescence

The term obsolete means the product or part is no longer in use, even though it may still be in working order. It is a term associated with outdated designs that are no longer supported by the manufacturer. A component may be referred to as obsolete if that product is no longer available from the original component manufacturer or through their franchised or authorized supplier. When components become unavailable through authorized supply channels, it typically becomes necessary to engage procurement activities from the open market. Independent Distributors become a valuable resource when a buyer is in need of obsolete material.
Obsolete Component


A component that is no longer manufactured by the Original Component Manufacturer. An obsolete component can no longer be purchased directly from an OCM but may be sourced from the open market.
OCM

Component Manufacturer
Original Component Manufacturer

An entity that designs and/or engineers a part and is pursuing or has obtained the intellectual property rights to that part. 1. The part and/or its packaging is typically identified with the OCM’s trademark. 2. OCMs may contract out the manufacturing and/or distribution of their product. 3. Different OCMs may supply product for the same application or to a common specification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

A company that manufactures products that it has designed from purchased components and sells those products under the company’s brand name.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Open Trusted Technology Provide Standard

O-TTPS

The O-TTPS is an open standard containing a set of organizational guidelines, requirements, and recommendations for integrators, providers, and component suppliers to enhance the security of the global supply chain and the integrity of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This standard if properly adhered to will help assure against maliciously tainted and counterfeit products throughout the COTS ICT product life cycle encompassing the following phases: design, sourcing, build, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal.
Revision Number: 1.0
Date Published: 2013-04
Source: The Open Group website
Original Component Manufacturer

Component Manufacturer
OCM

An entity that designs and/or engineers a part and is pursuing or has obtained the intellectual property rights to that part. 1. The part and/or its packaging is typically identified with the OCM’s trademark. 2. OCMs may contract out the manufacturing and/or distribution of their product. 3. Different OCMs may supply product for the same application or to a common specification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Original Equipment Manufacturer

OEM

A company that manufactures products that it has designed from purchased components and sells those products under the company’s brand name.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
O-TTPS

Open Trusted Technology Provide Standard

The O-TTPS is an open standard containing a set of organizational guidelines, requirements, and recommendations for integrators, providers, and component suppliers to enhance the security of the global supply chain and the integrity of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This standard if properly adhered to will help assure against maliciously tainted and counterfeit products throughout the COTS ICT product life cycle encompassing the following phases: design, sourcing, build, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal.
Revision Number: 1.0
Date Published: 2013-04
Source: The Open Group website
Overflow


Excess blacktopping or paint visible on the side or edge of the component indicating the part may have been resurfaced and remarked.
Overproduced Part


(1) A counterfeit part type. (2) Parts manufactured in accordance with the Intellectual Property holder’s specifications but not with the IP holder’s authorization that are subsequently distributed in the open market and not within the authorized supply chain. (3.) Fabrication outside of IP holder agreed upon contract. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part Note: “Today’s high-density integrated circuits are mostly manufactured in state-of-art fabrication facilities. Building or maintaining such facilities for the present CMOS technology is reported to cost more than several billion dollars and this number is growing [51]. Given this increasing cost and the complexity of foundries and their processes, the semiconductor business has largely shifted to a contract foundry business model (horizontal business model) over the past two decades. This is also true for the assembly where the dies are packaged, tested, and shipped to the market. Any untrusted foundry/assembly that has access to a designer’s IP, also has the ability to fabricate ICs outside of contract. They can easily sell excess ICs on the open market.”"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
P
Packaging (Component)

Component Packaging

Component packaging refers to the manner in which electronic parts are packaged in preparation for use by electronic assemblers. The determination of packaging types is determined by product sensitivities such as moisture, physical (lead pitch, co-planarity), electrostatic discharge (ESD), as well as the method (manually, or by use of automated equipment) to be used to place parts on the printed circuit board. There are four types of packaging: bulk, trays, tubes, and tape and reel.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Part Authentication

Part Verification

The process that attempts to determine whether a component is or is not a product manufactured by the Original Component Manufacturer.
Part Verification

Part Authentication

The process that attempts to determine whether a component is or is not a product manufactured by the Original Component Manufacturer.
Particle Impact Noise Detection Testing

PIND Testing

A nondestructive technique which uses controlled vibration and shock to detect loose particles in cavity devices (See MIL-STD-202, Test Method 217, or MIL-STD-750, Test Method 2052, or MIL-STD-883, Test Method 2020).
Passive Discrete Components

Active Discrete Components
Discrete Components

Discrete components are simply defined as single element (circuit) electronic devices. Discrete devices are subgrouped by passive (primarily to regulate voltage and current flows, although they cannot achieve power gain) and active (switching devices, with the exception of LED). Most commonly and for relevance in inspection methodologies, passive discrete components do not contain a silicon wafer while active components do. Active Discrete components increase the power of a signal and must be supplied with the signal and a source of power. The signal is fed into one connection of the active device and the amplified version taken from another connection. In a transistor, the signal can be applied to the base connection and the amplified version taken from the collector. The source of power is usually a direct current voltage from a battery or power supply. Examples are bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, light emitting diodes (LED), metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFED), etc. Passive Discrete components do not increase the power of a signal. They often cause power to be lost. Some can increase the voltage at the expense of current, so overall there is a loss of power. Examples are resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes (the latter is a special case).
Sources: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B and White Horse Laboratories, Ltd
PCN

Product Change Notice

A document sent to users describing product or process changes, the reasons for the change, and the projected impact of the change.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD46C, 10/06
PDN

End-Of-Life Notice
Product Discontinuation Notice

A notice issued by an original component manufacturer that confirms that a particular component will no longer be manufactured.
Physical Defect


(1) A counterfeit indicator. (2) A defect directly related to the physical properties of a component typically classified as either exterior or interior defects depending on the location. See: Exterior Defect, Interior Defect"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
PI

Pro Forma Invoice
Proforma Invoice

A pro forma document is provided in advance of an actual transaction. Such a document serves as a model for the actual documents of the transaction. A pro forma (or proforma) invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to sell goods to the buyer at specified prices and terms. It is used to declare the value of the trade. It is not a true invoice, because it is not used to record accounts receivable for the seller and accounts payable for the buyer.
PIND Testing

Particle Impact Noise Detection Testing

A nondestructive technique which uses controlled vibration and shock to detect loose particles in cavity devices (See MIL-STD-202, Test Method 217, or MIL-STD-750, Test Method 2052, or MIL-STD-883, Test Method 2020).
PO

Purchase Order

A document used by a buyer to acquire a product or service, usually contains the terms and conditions (including price) governing the sale.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Pro Forma Invoice

PI
Proforma Invoice

A pro forma document is provided in advance of an actual transaction. Such a document serves as a model for the actual documents of the transaction. A pro forma (or proforma) invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to sell goods to the buyer at specified prices and terms. It is used to declare the value of the trade. It is not a true invoice, because it is not used to record accounts receivable for the seller and accounts payable for the buyer.
Product Change Notice

PCN

A document sent to users describing product or process changes, the reasons for the change, and the projected impact of the change.
Source: JEDEC website referencing JESD46C, 10/06
Product Discontinuation Notice

End-Of-Life Notice
PDN

A notice issued by an original component manufacturer that confirms that a particular component will no longer be manufactured.
Proforma Invoice

PI
Pro Forma Invoice

A pro forma document is provided in advance of an actual transaction. Such a document serves as a model for the actual documents of the transaction. A pro forma (or proforma) invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to sell goods to the buyer at specified prices and terms. It is used to declare the value of the trade. It is not a true invoice, because it is not used to record accounts receivable for the seller and accounts payable for the buyer.
Pull

Pulled
Pulls

See Used. (1) Any device that has been previously mounted (either soldered or socketed) onto a printed circuit board or any other electronic assembly. (2) Used parts should have full leads, unless otherwise specified. (3) Used parts may be sold in third party packaging or in bulk packaging and may consist of numerous date codes, lot codes, week codes, and countries of origin. (4) Used parts may have physical defects, such as scratches, slightly bent leads, test dots, faded markings, chemical residue, or other signs of use. (5) Used parts may be sold with a limited warranty. (6) Used programmable devices may still contain programs or remnants of programs not completely removed from the component, which could affect the device’s future use and functionality. (7) Used parts that are sold as refurbished should meet the industry definition of Refurbished or should be sold simply as USED or PULLED.
Pulled

Pull
Pulls

See Used. (1) Any device that has been previously mounted (either soldered or socketed) onto a printed circuit board or any other electronic assembly. (2) Used parts should have full leads, unless otherwise specified. (3) Used parts may be sold in third party packaging or in bulk packaging and may consist of numerous date codes, lot codes, week codes, and countries of origin. (4) Used parts may have physical defects, such as scratches, slightly bent leads, test dots, faded markings, chemical residue, or other signs of use. (5) Used parts may be sold with a limited warranty. (6) Used programmable devices may still contain programs or remnants of programs not completely removed from the component, which could affect the device’s future use and functionality. (7) Used parts that are sold as refurbished should meet the industry definition of Refurbished or should be sold simply as USED or PULLED.
Pulls

Pull
Pulled

See Used. (1) Any device that has been previously mounted (either soldered or socketed) onto a printed circuit board or any other electronic assembly. (2) Used parts should have full leads, unless otherwise specified. (3) Used parts may be sold in third party packaging or in bulk packaging and may consist of numerous date codes, lot codes, week codes, and countries of origin. (4) Used parts may have physical defects, such as scratches, slightly bent leads, test dots, faded markings, chemical residue, or other signs of use. (5) Used parts may be sold with a limited warranty. (6) Used programmable devices may still contain programs or remnants of programs not completely removed from the component, which could affect the device’s future use and functionality. (7) Used parts that are sold as refurbished should meet the industry definition of Refurbished or should be sold simply as USED or PULLED.
Purchase Order

PO

A document used by a buyer to acquire a product or service, usually contains the terms and conditions (including price) governing the sale.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
R
Reclaimed

Reclamation

Large quantities of electronic equipment containing working devices are scrapped. Valuable components can be recovered for reuse; however, uncontrolled removal can damage and/or compromise the original electrical performance, reliability and operational life. These compromised parts can then be sold into the supply chain.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Reclamation

Reclaimed

Large quantities of electronic equipment containing working devices are scrapped. Valuable components can be recovered for reuse; however, uncontrolled removal can damage and/or compromise the original electrical performance, reliability and operational life. These compromised parts can then be sold into the supply chain.
Source: iNEMI, “Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use” by Mark Schaffer.
Recycled Part


(1.) A counterfeit part type. (2.) Components that have been removed from a used system, repackaged and remarked and then sold in the market as new. Note: “The most widely discussed counterfeit types at the present time are the recycled and remarked types. It is reported that in today’s supply chain, more than 80 % of counterfeit components are recycled and remarked [38]. In the United States, only 25 % of electronic waste was properly recycled in 2009 [73]. That percentage might be lower for many other countries. This huge resource of e-waste allows counterfeiters to pile up an extremely large supply of counterfeit components. The components become recycled when they are taken from a used system, repackaged and remarked, and then sold in the market as new. These recycled parts either may be non-functioning or prior usage may have done significant damage to the part’s life or performance.” See: Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Refinished


Using post-manufacture plating methods (such as solder dipping) to alter the plating composition on a part’s leads.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A.
Refurbished


(1.) Devices that have been brightened, freshened, polished or renovated in an effort to restore them to a like new condition. (2.) Refurbished components may have had their leads realigned and have been re-tinned to give the lead a shiny new finish. (3.) Parts that have not been re-tinned should be classified as Used NOT Refurbished. (4.) Programmable, refurbished components should be erased and should not contain programs. (5.) Refurbished material should be sold in the manufacturer's recommended ESD compliant packaging. The packaging may not be factory original packaging, but may be third party packaging.
Registration


The Certification Body action of entering a record or causing a record to be entered, as a result of certification.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS5553 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition, Rev. A.
Relabeling


Relabeling is the process of altering the markings on a part to make it appear as a different part. A typical part marking includes part number, lot number, and the manufacturer’s logo. In some cases, part marking also includes the country of origin mark. The relabeling process includes erasing the original marking by methods such as blacktopping, or sandblasting and applying a new marking to create a counterfeit part. Sandblasting is the process of smoothing, shaping, or cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds. Blacktopping is a process in which a layer of material is applied to the top surface of a part to cover over old marking. Blacktopping may also be carried out after the part has been subjected to sandblasting. Relabeling may be carried out according to the needs of the customer to have higher grade parts (e.g., changing processor speed), different parts with the same pin count and packaging type, different vintage parts (e.g., changing date code), or different military specifications. Some cases of relabeling also include dual part marking, i.e., the presence of part marking at two different places on the part.
Source: “Screening for Counterfeit Electronic Parts” by Bhanu Sood and Diganta Das – Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering.
Remarked Part


Parts or devices in which the original part markings were removed or covered and then marked with a new part marking. See: Recycled Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part, Tampered Part Note: “In remarking, the counterfeiters remove the old marking on the package (or even on the die) and mark them again with forged information. During the remarking process, the components’ packages are sanded or ground down to remove old markings (part number, date code, country of origin, etc.). Then, to cover the sanding or grinding marks, a new coating is created and applied to the component. Components can also be remarked to obtain a higher specification than they are rated for by the original component manufacturer (OCM), e.g., from commercial grade to industrial or defense grade.”
Sources: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B. and “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Repackaging


Repackaging is the process of altering the packaging of a part in order to disguise it as a different part with a different pin count and package type (e.g., dual-in-line (DIP) or plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC)). The process involves recovery of die (by removing the original packaging) and molding the die into the desired package type. Counterfeiters generally do not use proper handling procedures, tools, and materials for repackaging the die, which may lead to defects or degradation in the repackaged parts such as die contamination, moisture-induced interfacial delamination, and cracks in the passivation layer. There may also be workmanship issues with the repackaged parts such as missing bond wires, missing die, bond wire misalignment, or poor die paddle construction. The marking on repackaged parts also may not match with the die markings. There may also be marking irregularities such as spelling errors, discrepancies in part number, or an incorrect logo. Counterfeiters may also use inferior quality materials to package the die, such as cheap filler materials and flame retardants.
Source: “Screening for Counterfeit Electronic Parts” by Bhanu Sood and Diganta Das – Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering.
Request for Quotation

Request for Quote
RFQ

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Request for Quote

Request for Quotation
RFQ

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Return Goods Authorization

Return Merchandise Authorization
RGA
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Return Merchandise Authorization

Return Goods Authorization
RGA
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Reverse Engineering


(1) A process used by counterfeiters to make a cloned part. (2) The process of discovering the technological principles of a device through analysis of its structure, function, and operation. (3) The disassembling of an electronic component to analyze its inner workings in detail for the creation of a new device that will either function the same. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part Note: Part cloning may involve reverse engineering. “Cloning is commonly used by a wide variety of adversaries/counterfeiters (from small entity to large corporation) to copy a design in order to reduce the large development cost of a component. A cloned component is an unauthorized production without a legal IP. Cloning can be done in two ways – by reverse engineering, and by obtaining IPs illegally. In reverse engineering, counterfeiters copy designs and then manufacture (fabricate) components which are the exact copy of their original counterpart. Sometimes cloning can be done by copying the – contents of a memory used in a tag for electronic chip ID, bitstream targeted to programmable gate arrays, etc.” "
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
RFQ

Request for Quotation
Request for Quote

Documentation from purchasing agent to vendor to request a firm price to provide product and/or services.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
RGA

Return Goods Authorization
Return Merchandise Authorization
RMA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
Risk-Based Approach


An analytical strategy that focuses attention on areas or applications where failures will produce severe consequences and trigger impacts to the overall mission objectives and/or human safety.
Secretary of the Navy SECNAV INSTRUCTION 4855.20
RMA

Return Goods Authorization
Return Merchandise Authorization
RGA

A return merchandise authorization (RMA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product in order to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product's warranty period. The purchaser of the product must contact the manufacturer (or distributor or retailer) to obtain authorization to return the product.
Source: Wikipedia.
S
SAE

SAE International

SAE International is a global association of more than 138,000 engineers and related technical experts in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries. SAE International's core competencies are life-long learning and voluntary consensus standards development. SAE International's charitable arm is the SAE Foundation, which supports many programs, including A World In Motion® and the Collegiate Design Series.
Source: SAE website
SAE International

SAE

SAE International is a global association of more than 138,000 engineers and related technical experts in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries. SAE International's core competencies are life-long learning and voluntary consensus standards development. SAE International's charitable arm is the SAE Foundation, which supports many programs, including A World In Motion® and the Collegiate Design Series.
Source: SAE website
Sandblasting


Sandblasting is the process of smoothing, shaping, or cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds. See also Microblasting and Relabeling.
Source: “Screening for Counterfeit Electronic Parts” by Bhanu Sood and Diganta Das – Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering.
Sanding


The act of removing original manufacturer markings by sanding or other abrasive process. In terms of counterfeiting, the act of removing the top and/or bottom markings on a chip for the purpose of remarking.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B.
Scrap


Devices rejected during manufacturing are sent to recyclers to salvage precious metals. Recyclers may certify destruction without scrapping devices and subsequently sell it back into the supply chain.

Source: iNEMI, "Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use" by Mark Schaffer.


Defective, damaged, or used electronic parts or systems from which electronic parts may be scavenged.

Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation


Scrape Test

Scratch Test

The irregular removal of a deposited layer from a base material by a shearing action from another surface such that the base material is exposed over an extended area. It can also apply to the removal of surface layers from a material. The material removed from the scraped area may build up at the edges of the scrape. ERAI Note: Scrape tests are commonly used to determine if a part has been blacktopped; however, industry consensus is that scrape tests are not accurate measures to determine a part’s authenticity and should not be used as a stand-alone inspection criteria.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Scratch Test

Scrape Test

The irregular removal of a deposited layer from a base material by a shearing action from another surface such that the base material is exposed over an extended area. It can also apply to the removal of surface layers from a material. The material removed from the scraped area may build up at the edges of the scrape. ERAI Note: Scrape tests are commonly used to determine if a part has been blacktopped; however, industry consensus is that scrape tests are not accurate measures to determine a part’s authenticity and should not be used as a stand-alone inspection criteria.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMI® International Standards: Compilation of Terms (Updated 1108).
Section 818

DOD Section 818
NDAA 2012 Section 818

(1.) Directs the Secretary to assess DOD acquisition policies and systems for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (2.) Outlines specific actions to be taken by the Secretary following such assessment, including revising the DOD Supplement to FAR to address such detection and avoidance. (3.) Provides contractor responsibilities relating to such detection and avoidance. (4.) Requires DOD contractors and subcontractors at all tiers, whenever possible, to obtain electronic parts from trusted suppliers (as compiled by DOD). (5.) Requires any DOD contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware of or has reason to suspect that any end item, component, part, or material contained in supplies purchased by DOD is counterfeit to report such fact to appropriate government authorities and the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program. (6.) Directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a methodology for the targeting of imported electronic parts as counterfeit sources. (7.) Requires the DOD Secretary to implement a program to enhance contractor detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts. (8.) Amends the federal criminal code to provide criminal penalties for the intentional trafficking in counterfeit military goods or services. (9.) Requires the Attorney General to include in an annual report to Congress on Department of Justice (DOJ) business all DOJ actions taken with respect to such trafficking.
Source: GovTrack Website.
SEMI T20-0710


The semiconductor industry has lacked standardized methods to validate the integrity of goods from non-certified distributors or suppliers. The purpose of this specification is to describe the system architecture aspect of an authentication process to establish the trusted identity of products or objects. This specification is the basic element of a suite of standards. This suite of standards is being developed in response to a request from the Anti-Counterfeiting Task Force aimed at enabling automated, reliable, and secure product authentication for the semiconductor industry, thereby reducing the presence of illegal counterfeit items in the marketplace.
Revision Number: 0710
Date Published: 2010-09-04
Source: SEMI website
Solder Bridge


A solder bridge is caused by excess solder between two electrical conductors resulting in an unintentional electrical connection.
Solder Cream

Solder Paste

Solder paste (or solder cream) is used to connect the leads of surface mount integrated chip packages to attachment points (lands) in the circuit patterns on a printed circuit board. The paste is typically applied to the lands using a stencil to "print" the paste, although other methods, like dispensing from a tube, are also used.
Source: Wikipedia.
Solder Overflow


Solder overflow is the appearance of uneven solder flowing out of and around the solder joint area.
Source: Fusite – Emerson website.
Solder Paste

Solder Cream

Solder paste (or solder cream) is used to connect the leads of surface mount integrated chip packages to attachment points (lands) in the circuit patterns on a printed circuit board. The paste is typically applied to the lands using a stencil to "print" the paste, although other methods, like dispensing from a tube, are also used.
Source: Wikipedia.
Solder Splash


Solder splash is recognized by small bursts of solder extending away from the solder joint. ERAI Note: Solder splash is not commonly a manufacturing byproduct.
Source: Fusite – Emerson website.
Solderability Testing


The purpose of this test method is to provide a means of determining the solderability of device package terminations that are intended to be joined to another surface using lead- (Pb-) containing or Pb-free solder for the attachment.
Source: JEDEC Standard, JESD22-B102E: Solderability.
Stocking Distributor


A Distributor that stocks inventory.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Supplier


A blanket description of all sources of supply for a part. Types of Suppliers include OCM, OEM, Authorized (Franchised) Distributor, Independent Distributor, Broker Distributor, Stocking Distributor, Aftermarket Manufacturer, Government Supply Depot, and 3PL Provider.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Supply Chain Traceability


Documented evidence of a part’s supply chain history. This refers to documentation of all supply chain intermediaries and significant handling transactions, such as from OCM to distributor, or from excess inventory to broker to distributor.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Suspect counterfeit electronic part


"Suspect counterfeit electronic part" means an electronic part for which credible evidence (including, but not limited to, visual inspection or testing) provides reasonable doubt that the electronic part is authentic.
Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, Part 252—Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses, 252.246-7007 Contractor Counterfeit Electronic Part Detection and Avoidance System, (Revised May 6, 2014).
T
Tampered Part


(1) A counterfeit part type. See: Recycled Part, Remarked Part, Overproduced Part, Out-of-spec Part, Cloned Part Note: “Tampering can be done during any phase of the life cycle of a component. It can either be on the die level (“hardware Trojan”) or package level. Such components can either act as a silicon time bomb where the device can behave differently under certain conditions or act as a backdoor where secret information from the chip can be sent out to an adversary. In both cases, the chip behaves outside of its specification, and thus we have included such ICs as counterfeit parts. A detailed taxonomy for tampering a device by hardware Trojans can be found in.” Additional reading: Tehranipoor M, Koushanfar F (2010) A survey of hardware Trojan taxonomy and detection. IEEE Des Test Comput 27(1):10–25"
Source: “Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection, Avoidance, and the Challenges Ahead” by Ujjwal Guin, Daniel DiMase and Mohammad Tehranipoor
Temperature Cycling

Thermal Cycle Testing

This test is conducted to determine the ability of components and solder interconnects to withstand mechanical stresses induced by alternating high- and low-temperature extremes. Permanent changes in electrical and/or physical characteristics can result from these mechanical stresses.
Source: JEDEC Standard, JESD22-A104D: Temperature Cycling.
Thermal Cycle Testing

Temperature Cycling

This test is conducted to determine the ability of components and solder interconnects to withstand mechanical stresses induced by alternating high- and low-temperature extremes. Permanent changes in electrical and/or physical characteristics can result from these mechanical stresses.
Source: JEDEC Standard, JESD22-A104D: Temperature Cycling.
Tin Whiskers


“Whiskers”, first identified in electroplated cadmium components during the late 1940’s, appear to essentially be an extrusion, or hairlike growth emanating from the surface of the tin plate. They can sometimes grow long enough to cause a short circuit between leads, or may break off and cause damage elsewhere in the device. It is generally agreed that pure tin finishes (and other high-tin content lead-free alloy finishes) present a risk of tin-whisker failures in electronics, particularly those demanding high reliability.
Source: Silicon Cert Laboratories website.
Trailer

Leader

The blank pockets at the beginning and ending of component carrier tape.
Source: IDEA Standard IDEA-STD-1010-B Acceptability of Electronic Components Distributed in the Open Market, Rev. B
U
UCC

Uniform Commercial Code

The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) is a comprehensive set of laws governing commercial transactions between U.S. states and territories. These transactions include borrowing money, leases, contracts, and the sale of goods. UCC is not a federal law, but a product of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Law Institute. Both of these organizations are private entities that recommend the adopting of UCC by state governments. State legislatures may either adopt UCC verbatim or may modify it to meet the state's needs. Once a state's legislature adopts and enacts UCC, it becomes a state law and is codified in the state's statutes. All 50 states and territories have enacted some version of UCC.
Source: U.S. Small Business Administration website.
UK Electronic Alliance

UKEA

The UK Electronic Alliance (UKEA) was formed in response to the Electronics Innovation and Growth Team (EIGT) Report, which was published by the DTI in 2005. The EIGT Report stated ‘that the fragmented, diverse nature of the (electronics) industry, and its difficulty representing itself to Government and vice versa, led to delays in addressing some of the key issues which impact on its performance’. The UKEA pulls together the diverse group of trade associations within the electronics sector, presenting a unique opportunity for the electronics sector to speak with a co–ordinated voice. It provides a resource for government departments and agencies to enable them to have greater confidence when forming policy and support programmes for the sector. These activities require focused co-ordination, and typically would not be delivered through a “piecemeal” approach with each association “sharing” tasks or activities.
Source: UKEA website
UKEA

UK Electronic Alliance

The UK Electronic Alliance (UKEA) was formed in response to the Electronics Innovation and Growth Team (EIGT) Report, which was published by the DTI in 2005. The EIGT Report stated ‘that the fragmented, diverse nature of the (electronics) industry, and its difficulty representing itself to Government and vice versa, led to delays in addressing some of the key issues which impact on its performance’. The UKEA pulls together the diverse group of trade associations within the electronics sector, presenting a unique opportunity for the electronics sector to speak with a co–ordinated voice. It provides a resource for government departments and agencies to enable them to have greater confidence when forming policy and support programmes for the sector. These activities require focused co-ordination, and typically would not be delivered through a “piecemeal” approach with each association “sharing” tasks or activities.
Source: UKEA website
Unauthorized Distributor

Unauthorized Supplier

Slang term used to describe an Independent Distributor. See Independent Distributor.
Unauthorized Supplier

Unauthorized Distributor

Slang term used to describe an Independent Distributor. See Independent Distributor.
Uniform Commercial Code

UCC

The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) is a comprehensive set of laws governing commercial transactions between U.S. states and territories. These transactions include borrowing money, leases, contracts, and the sale of goods. UCC is not a federal law, but a product of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Law Institute. Both of these organizations are private entities that recommend the adopting of UCC by state governments. State legislatures may either adopt UCC verbatim or may modify it to meet the state's needs. Once a state's legislature adopts and enacts UCC, it becomes a state law and is codified in the state's statutes. All 50 states and territories have enacted some version of UCC.
Source: U.S. Small Business Administration website.
Uprated


Assessment that results in the extension of a part’s ratings to meet the performance requirements of an application in which the part is used outside the manufacturer’s specification range.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Upscreened


Additional part testing performed to produce parts verified to specifications beyond the part manufacturer’s operating parameters. Examples are Particle Impact Noise Testing (PIND), temperature screening, Radiation Hardness Assurance testing, etc.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
Used


Product that has been electrically charged and subsequently pulled or removed from a socket or other electronic application, excluding electrical testing for acceptance. Used product may be received in non-standard packaging (i.e., bulk), and may contain mixed lots, date codes, be from different facilities, etc. Parts may have physical defects such as scratches, slightly bent leads, test dots, faded markings, chemical residue or other signs of use, but the leads should be intact. Used product may be sold with a limited warranty, and programmable parts may still contain partial or complete programming which could impact the part’s functionality. Used parts marketed as refurbished shall be declared as such.
Source: SAE Aerospace Standard AS6081 Fraudulent/Counterfeit Electronic Parts: Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition – Distributors
V
Visual Inspection


Non-destructive evaluation involving visual examination for correct labeling, shape, size and dimension, form, fit, color, security coatings, etc. Visual inspection can include use of other non-destructive evaluation such as X-ray, XRF (X-ray fluorescence), and scanning acoustic microscopy.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation
X
X-Ray Imaging


Real-time X-ray imaging is the nondestructive, internal examination of devices and packages. Samples ranging from low-density plastic packages to higher-density steel can be viewed with a high degree of detail.
Source: Silicon Cert Laboratories website.