|Devices rejected during manufacturing are sent to recyclers to salvage precious metals. Recyclers may certify destruction without scrapping devices and subsequently sell it back into the supply chain.
Source: iNEMI, "Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use" by Mark Schaffer.
Defective, damaged, or used electronic parts or systems from which electronic parts may be scavenged.
Source: Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation